Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21, Section 3. When American planes detected radiation above the Soviet Union, they realized they were no longer the only country with atomic."— Presentation transcript:
When American planes detected radiation above the Soviet Union, they realized they were no longer the only country with atomic weaponry. Truman responded to this threat by calling for the development of a hydrogen bomb. Its development began an arms race between the two countries. It was hoped by both countries that the threat of mutually assured destruction would deter each side from using their atomic weapons.
When Dwight D. Eisenhower took over after Truman, he understood both the military and political aspects of war. ▪ Eisenhower and his secretary of state, John Foster Dulles, favored a new form of foreign policy. ▪ This idea would become known as massive retaliation, in which the United States promised to respond to Communist threats with full force. ▪ Dulles’ policy of going to the “brink of war” to protect allies was known as brinkmanship. Upon Joseph Stalin’s death, Nikita Krushchev emerged as the leader of the Soviet Union.
The “peaceful co-existence” talks between Krushchev and Eisenhower encouraged some of the countries behind the ‘iron curtain’ to gain their independence. Two uprisings took place—one in Poland, one in Hungary. ▪ Hungarian students led an uprising against communism. Krushchev sent numerous troops to execute the leaders.
When Gamal Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, taking it under Egyptian control, both Britain and France were upset. As Israel invaded in 1956, Eisenhower refused to support his Western allies. Counting on U.S. support, Britain and France withdrew their troops. This ended the Suez Crisis.
The Eisenhower Doctrine stated that the U.S. would use force to help any Middle Eastern nation threatened by communism. The Central Intelligence Agency was formed to be an intelligence-gathering agency. They exerted influence in Iran and Guatemala in the 1950s. This created long-term resentment of the U.S.
The launch of the Soviet satellite, Sputnik, set off a space race between the Soviet Union and the U.S. The two responses by the federal government were: ▪ More money devoted to science and math education (National Defense Education Act); ▪ Creation of NASA– National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
What was the basis of the Red Scare? The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Feared that communism would destroy the U.S. As Truman sought to ensure no disloyalty in the federal government, Congress attempted to broaden the search for Communists. The House of Representatives formed the House Un- American Activities Committee (HUAC). The most notable hearings of those suspected of Communism involved those in the movie industry.
The paranoia brought on by the Red Scare threatened individuals from all social classes. Alger Hiss was a prominent man accused of having contacts with known Communist, Whittaker Chambers. ▪ Hiss was convicted and sentenced. The fact that such an influential man could be linked to Communism shocked Americans. ▪ Who was the man who had tried the case against Hiss? Richard Nixon
The trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg generated national attention. The couple was accused of selling atomic secrets to the Soviets. What happened to the Rosenbergs? Were they guilty? ▪ They were tried, and plead innocent. They claimed they were targeted because they were Jewish. They were both sent to the electric chair in 1953. ▪ It was later found that Julius was guilty of espionage, but Ethel knew very little, if anything.
In 1950, a senator from Wisconsin, Joseph McCarthy announced in a speech that he had names of known Communists in the State Department. McCarthyism: the making of extreme and reckless allegations of communism. McCarthy accused members of the U.S. Army of being communist. They hearings were televised, and many Americans were shocked at his bullying tactics and lack of evidence.