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Chapter 21, Section 3.  When American planes detected radiation above the Soviet Union, they realized they were no longer the only country with atomic.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21, Section 3.  When American planes detected radiation above the Soviet Union, they realized they were no longer the only country with atomic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21, Section 3

2  When American planes detected radiation above the Soviet Union, they realized they were no longer the only country with atomic weaponry.  Truman responded to this threat by calling for the development of a hydrogen bomb. Its development began an arms race between the two countries.  It was hoped by both countries that the threat of mutually assured destruction would deter each side from using their atomic weapons.

3  When Dwight D. Eisenhower took over after Truman, he understood both the military and political aspects of war. ▪ Eisenhower and his secretary of state, John Foster Dulles, favored a new form of foreign policy. ▪ This idea would become known as massive retaliation, in which the United States promised to respond to Communist threats with full force. ▪ Dulles’ policy of going to the “brink of war” to protect allies was known as brinkmanship.  Upon Joseph Stalin’s death, Nikita Krushchev emerged as the leader of the Soviet Union.

4  The “peaceful co-existence” talks between Krushchev and Eisenhower encouraged some of the countries behind the ‘iron curtain’ to gain their independence.  Two uprisings took place—one in Poland, one in Hungary. ▪ Hungarian students led an uprising against communism. Krushchev sent numerous troops to execute the leaders.

5  When Gamal Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, taking it under Egyptian control, both Britain and France were upset.  As Israel invaded in 1956, Eisenhower refused to support his Western allies. Counting on U.S. support, Britain and France withdrew their troops. This ended the Suez Crisis.

6  The Eisenhower Doctrine stated that the U.S. would use force to help any Middle Eastern nation threatened by communism.  The Central Intelligence Agency was formed to be an intelligence-gathering agency. They exerted influence in Iran and Guatemala in the 1950s. This created long-term resentment of the U.S.

7  The launch of the Soviet satellite, Sputnik, set off a space race between the Soviet Union and the U.S. The two responses by the federal government were: ▪ More money devoted to science and math education (National Defense Education Act); ▪ Creation of NASA– National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

8 Chapter 21, Section 4

9  What was the basis of the Red Scare?  The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.  Feared that communism would destroy the U.S.  As Truman sought to ensure no disloyalty in the federal government, Congress attempted to broaden the search for Communists. The House of Representatives formed the House Un- American Activities Committee (HUAC).  The most notable hearings of those suspected of Communism involved those in the movie industry.

10  The paranoia brought on by the Red Scare threatened individuals from all social classes.  Alger Hiss was a prominent man accused of having contacts with known Communist, Whittaker Chambers. ▪ Hiss was convicted and sentenced. The fact that such an influential man could be linked to Communism shocked Americans. ▪ Who was the man who had tried the case against Hiss? Richard Nixon

11  The trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg generated national attention. The couple was accused of selling atomic secrets to the Soviets.  What happened to the Rosenbergs? Were they guilty? ▪ They were tried, and plead innocent. They claimed they were targeted because they were Jewish. They were both sent to the electric chair in ▪ It was later found that Julius was guilty of espionage, but Ethel knew very little, if anything.

12  In 1950, a senator from Wisconsin, Joseph McCarthy announced in a speech that he had names of known Communists in the State Department.  McCarthyism: the making of extreme and reckless allegations of communism.  McCarthy accused members of the U.S. Army of being communist. They hearings were televised, and many Americans were shocked at his bullying tactics and lack of evidence.


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