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Chapter 28, Section 2: The Korean War Period

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1 Chapter 28, Section 2: The Korean War Period
Main Idea: During the Korean War, the US & the UN defended South Korea against attack from North Korea & China.

2 A. The Korean Conflict Korea Divided Invasion Landing at Inchon
Korea is “temporarily” divided near the 38th parallel after WWII. North is communist (USSR), South is non-communist (USA). Invasion North invaded South in 6/1950 to unite the country under one communist government. The United Nations sent troops (80% US), led by General Douglas MacArthur (WWII hero), to push the North Koreans back out. Landing at Inchon UN forces were overwhelmed at first, but MacArthur counterattacked by inserting UN forces at Inchon (behind NK), forcing North Korea back across the 38th parallel. Then, they invade North Korea to “punish” them for their aggression & re-unite Korea.

3 Korean War 1950-1953 China Enters the War
As UN forces pushed North Korea closer to the Chinese border, Chinese troops crossed the Yalu River into North Korea to help their fellow Communists. This reversed the tide of the war once again, with Chinese forces now driving UN forces south again, across the 38th parallel & deep into South Korea. Then, UN forces regrouped & drove the Chinese back into North Korea by 3/1951. From there, the war remained deadlocked for over 2 years. Kim Il-Sung Korean War Syngman Rhee

4 Truman Fires MacArthur
B. An End to the Fighting President Truman & General MacArthur disagreed on how to proceed with the war. MacArthur wanted to invade China for total victory, while Truman feared that an invasion of China might start WWIII. Truman Fires MacArthur MacArthur complained publicly that he was being held back by politicians in Washington & criticized Truman for failing to act. “We must win. There is no substitute for victory.” - MacArthur Truman fired him for defying his superiors (President is also C in C). This was very controversial because MacArthur was a very popular WWII hero. Armistice & Costs Peace talks drag on for 2 years. In the meantime, Dwight Eisenhower (another popular WWII hero) became President. Finally, a cease-fire was signed in 7/1953, making the 38th parallel the border (DMZ). Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel (changed little on a map), but the US showed their determination to stop communist expansion. 54,000 US dead compared to nearly 2 million Korean & Chinese dead

5 The Shifting Map of Korea [1950-1953]


7 C. Hunting Communists at Home
News in 1949 about the USSR developing an atomic bomb & China becoming communist, along with the Hiss & Rosenberg Trials (Soviet spies), & the Korean War, caused a fear of communism spreading in the US & compromising our national security (Red Scare, Part 2). Many Americans joined the communist party during the Great Depression as a possible solution to our nation’s economic problems, but left after it ended. Search for Spies In the late 1940s, several trials shook people’s confidence in safety. Americans Julius & Ethel Rosenberg were executed for providing secrets about the atomic bomb to the Soviets. They were seemingly “ordinary” citizens. State Department official Alger Hiss was imprisoned for lying under oath about being part of a Soviet spy ring, along with other members of the government. The McCarthy Era McCarthyism – Sen. Joseph McCarthy stirred up the “Red Scare” by claiming he had lists of communists in the government. He offered no proof, but his allegations brought him a lot of attention & power. Over the next 4 years, he destroyed many careers with false accusations. Many businesses & colleges also became suspicious of employees & fired some. He is eventually censured (officially condemned) by Congress after the Army-McCarthy television hearings show him as a bully, not a hero, & his popularity plunged. He died 3 years later.

8 Testing of an Atomic Cannon (1:17 - 1953)
Example of American fears of Communism: - Americans, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, were accused of stealing nuclear secrets for the Soviets. - The Rosenbergs were executed for their crimes in 1953. Testing of an Atomic Cannon (1: )

9 Communists at the State Department:
- State Department official Alger Hiss was imprisoned for perjury in 1950. - Hiss had lied under oath, denying that he was a part of a Soviet spy ring that sent U.S. government secrets to the Soviet Union.

10 McCarthy’s reckless claims:
· In 1950, Senator Joseph McCarthy announced that he had a list of 205 State Department employees that were members of the Communist party. · McCarthy’s claim was never proven, but he helped to increase a fear of communism in America known as the “Red Scare”. · After thousands of Americans had their lives ruined after being accused of being communists, McCarthy’s popularity lessened as the nation learned that he had no proof behind his accusations. Audio: Senator Joseph McCarthy Responds to E.R. Murrow on CBS's See It Now





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