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Ideologies and states: the socialist challenge The Extra-European World Term 1, week 9.

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Presentation on theme: "Ideologies and states: the socialist challenge The Extra-European World Term 1, week 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ideologies and states: the socialist challenge The Extra-European World Term 1, week 9

2 Outline 1.Introduction: four leaders 2.The Impact of the First World War 3. The Soviet Model and the Communist International 4. National Liberation and Social Revolution 5. Conclusion and Outlook

3 Four leaders

4 Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) Leader of Chinese communist party Kim Il-Sung Leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Fidel Castro Cuban leader of the 1959 revolution Secretary of the CCP Hồ Chí Minh President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam)

5 What do they have in common? All leaders of extra-European communist parties All leaders of communist states All had exposure to the Western world All were exposed to the world of agriculture All had connections to the military

6 What do they have in common? Nationalist tendencies, perhaps originating with experiences of colonial occupation in their youth Leaders of politically isolated states Cult of personality

7 Education 1.Why is education significant for understanding communism in the non- Western world?  European communism had his mass base in blue-collar workers (many of the leaders also came from the working class)  Extra-European support for communism came at the beginning from intellectuals 1.Much of the world was ruled by European colonial powers  Needed loyal bureaucrats to serve the colonial administration  Educated promising individuals at Oxford, the Sorbonne, Leiden 1.Questioned the relationship between metropolitan theories and domestic realities in their homelands, and demanded rights for their own homelands.

8 Liberalism to Marxism 1. How did the transition from liberal nationalists to radical Marxists come about? 2. Students of the history of relations between the first and the third worlds realised that capitalism was impoverishing the majority on a global scale. 3. There seemed to be a connection between imperialism and capitalism, and it wasn’t working in favour of the majority of the population in the non-European world (see here Hilferding’s and Lenin’s views of the nature of imperialism) 4. Socialism seemed to offer an alternative for understanding the relationship between imperialism and capitalism, and offer solutions 5. Promising young bureaucrats returned home as flaming Marxists.

9 Outline 1.Introduction: four leaders 2.The Impact of the First World War 3. The Soviet Model and the Communist International 4. National Liberation and Social Revolution 5. Conclusion and Outlook

10 Impact of world war I Impact of the brutalities of the first World War: raised questions about how civilised Europe was and whether the Europeans were in any position to bring civilization to the rest of the world Indian soldiers convalesce outside the Royal Pavilion. Over fifty thousand volunteered to fight for Britain in the First World War. Image courtesy of the Royal Pavilion & Museums, Brighton & Hove.

11 Impact of world war I European administrators in the colonial world were recalled by their European governments, and replaced by native administrators. Were promised a great deal of independence and responsibility, but these promises were not kept in the interwar era. German East Africa, for example, had been under German colonial administration, but was placed under Belgian administration in 1920, known as Ruanda-Urundi. The Belgians used the indigenous power structure, so that the largely Tutsi ruling class controlled a mostly Hutu population. The anger at the oppression and misrule among the population focused on Tutsi elite rather than the distant colonial power.

12 Impact of world war I Peace Treaty Negotiations in Versailles in Woodrow Wilson offered self-determination of nations, but in practice their requests were denied. Chinese protesters during the May Fourth Uprising, 1919

13 Impact of world war I Peace Treaty Negotiations in Versailles in Woodrow Wilson offered self-determination of nations, but in practice their requests were denied. Egyptian women demonstrating in the 1919 Revolution, precipitated by the British- ordered exile of nationalist leader Saad Zaghlûl National intellectuals in colonies disappointed from victorious Western democracies – looking for alternatives

14 Outline 1.Introduction: four leaders 2.The Impact of the First World War 3. The Soviet Model and the Communist International 4. National Liberation and Social Revolution 5. Conclusion and Outlook

15 Leninism and Stalinism Leninism revolutionary, materialist ideology based on Marxism one party state + dictatorship of proletariat + nationalised industry + planned economy + aims of revolution and socialism justify all means, certain plurality in Bolshevik party accepted Stalinism Leninism + excessive use of force, rule of terror, cult of the leader (Stalin), system of camps, people with different views imprisoned or killed, no pluralism allowed inside Bolshevik party

16 Model for state building Soviet development: role model – only one path to socialism: dominant until 1950: war communism followed by New Economic Policy (with capitalist elements), collectivisation of agriculture accompanied by industrialisation with focus on heavy industry (ideological aim: creating working class – mass base for communism) Soviet Army takes revolution to other countries (setting example for China, Cuba) After Stalin’s death: return to more Leninist principles, camps dissolved, de-Stalinisation, more Leninist than Stalinist Oppressive but no use of terror Foreign policy: wars can be avoided (after invention of nuclear weapons)

17 The Communist International and the World Revolution Founded 1919 in Moscow, basis (since 1920): Marxism-Leninism, membership only for revolutionary parties Until 1929 Bolshevisation of communist parties, administered by Comintern centre in Moscow (under control of Bolshevik leadership) Political line of Comintern determined by Bolshevik leadership, reflects ideological development of Bolshevik Party General staff of world revolution Comintern subordinated to interests of Soviet Union 1943 Comintern officially dissolved 1947 Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) founded

18 The Communist International and the ‘Peoples of the East’ 1920 Conference of Baku of the ‘Peoples of the East’, mostly from different parts of Soviet Union Colonised countries not yet ready for socialist revolution National Bourgeoisie of colonised countries is progressive because it is fighting for national liberation against imperialist powers and their local collaborators Communists in these countries should form alliance with nationalist organisations fighting for ‘national liberation’ After national liberation and successful de-colonisation communists have to fight against national bourgeoisie Imposed from Comintern and Moscow on Communist parties all over the world, often against the will of national communists Comintern and Soviet Union send advisors to different countries advising not only Communists but also nationalist organisations. Example China: Soviet military advisors help to strengthen Nationalist Party (GMD)

19 Socialism in Asia and Africa A range of socialist and communist parties were founded after WWI. These included: Argentina, 1918 Great Britain, 1920 China, 1921 Cuba, 1921 South Africa, 1921 Japan, 1922 India, 1925 Vietnam, 1930

20 Socialism in Asia and Africa In May 1925, strikes broke out in a number of Chinese cities, and workers protested against the Japanese and British manufacturers. The Chinese Communist Party played a central role in these anti-British, nationalist strikes.

21 Outline 1.Introduction: four leaders 2.The Impact of the First World War 3. The Soviet Model and the Communist International 4. National Liberation and Social Revolution 5. Conclusion and Outlook

22 Impact of world war II 1.Enforced the sense of weakness of the imperial powers (see what happened in France and Holland) 2.Failed promises to colonial adminstrations led to protests and conflicts

23 Impact of world war II 1.Enforced the sense of weakness of the imperial powers (see what happened in France and Holland) 2.Failed promises to colonial administrations led to protests and conflicts Leader of the Indonesian National Party Achmed Sukarno ( ) demanding independence from the Netherlands in an undated photo. Indonesian independence from Dutch colonial rule was achieved in 1949 after a bloody struggle. (-/AFP/Getty Images)

24 Impact of world war II 1.Enforced the sense of weakness of the imperial powers (see what happened in France and Holland) 2.Failed promises to colonial adminstrations led to protests and conflicts On 8 May 1945, an uprising against the occupying French forces in the Algerian town of Sétif resulted in the deaths of 21 settlers, and killed perhaps as many as 40,000 Algerians.

25 Case studies: China 1.Communist party in conflict with Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Party (GMD) 2.Comintern (advocated collaboration with and support for bourgeois parties such as the Chinese Nationalist Nationalist Party (GMD). 3.Cooperation of Communist Party and GMD ends in disaster (for Communists), Chiang-Kai Shek (new leader of Nationalist Party turns in Shanghai against left GMD and Communists). In the year after this ‘incident’ in April 1927, up to 300,000 communists were killed. 4. Comintern insists (after invasion of Japan) on a renewal of the alliance 5.CCP and Nationalist Party (GMD) formed United Front in 1931 against the invading Japanese forces. Location of the first Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai, 1921

26 1.After events in Shanghai – new power base of Communist Party in provinces Jiangxi and Hunan – birthplace of People’s Liberation Army 2. In Autumn 1934 attacked by Nationalist Army, Communist Army on legendary long march (October 1934 – October 1935) from Jiangxi to Shaanxi province. 3. Communists again forced by Soviet leadership to cooperate with Nationalists 4. Even after World War II Stalin did not expect socialist revolution in China, only reluctantly supports Mao when he turned against nationalists. 5.Civil War between 1945 and 1949 led to 1949 CCP victory. 6.Development of Mao Zedong-thought (emphasizing the revolutionary potential of the peasantry) 7.In Marxist-Leninist-Mao Zedong thought, peasantry takes on the role of the proletariat

27 Note: War as the pathway to revolution and the communist goal Ongoing importance of Maoism Based outside Peru

28 Case studies: CUBA 1.Fidel Castro started as a radical nationalist who wanted self- determination for Cuba, at the beginning he was no communist 2.Castro started out with socialist inclinations, and quite strong economic ties with the US Cuban Revolution, and turn to the SU 4.Transforms Communist party into ruling party Che Guevara added a democratic socialist dimension

29 After 1945 Eastern Europe becomes Communist: Beginning of Cold War In Western Societies: Communist scare Afraid of power of Soviet Union (atomic weapons and Sputnik shock) Afraid of attraction of Communism inside Western Societies McCarthyism in United States of America Cambridge Five Strength of Communist parties in Italy and France Fear that more and more previous colonies would fall under Communist influence and become allies of Soviet Union Unrest in Soviet camp: 1953 GDR, 1956: Poland and Hungary, 1968: Czechoslovakia Communism, decolonisation and the Cold War I

30 But communist movement is no longer mono-centric: no longer just Soviet model: Yugoslavia, China, later Cuba Soviet Union, China and Cuba different agendas – Soviet Union quite conservative since Khrushchev: peaceful coexistence with capitalism possible, reluctant to support communist insurgencies in Asia, Africa, South America Korean war ( ), Vietnam war (1956/ ) – successful and failed attempt to contain communism Cuba takes over: Cuban military advisors and soldiers in Angola, helping communist insurgents against Portugal In several Asian, African and South American states communist guerilla fighters fighting against ‘national bourgeoisie’ and against (mostly) American economic imperialism (United Fruit) – CIA organises coup d’états in several states to replace anti-imperialists with ‘friends’ Communism, decolonisation and the Cold War II

31 Outline 1.Introduction: four leaders 2.The Impact of the First World War 3. The Soviet Model and the Communist International 4. National Liberation and Social Revolution 5. Conclusion and Outlook

32 Communism, reformism and the New Left Social-democratic parties completely embrace reformism (SPD 1959 eliminates any traces of Marxism in its programme) New protest movements in 1960s New left and student movements Marxism inspires theorists and intellectuals (Sartre, Marcuse and others, also historians - Hobsbawm)

33 Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe 1989 ff End of socialism or communism as an alternative to capitalism? Some revival of socialist ideas in South America Evo Morales (Bolivia) and Hugo Chavez (Venezuela) After financial crash sales of Das Kapital (Karl Marx) in Germany went up Increasing gap between top earners and low earners in many ‘developed’ societies Child labour, exploitation of workers in many ‘less developed’ countries What will be the future of capitalism?

34 Fascism (National socialism) Welfare state liberalism Social democracy Democratic socialism Reform communism (market socialism) Totalitarian communism Neoliberalism Neoconservatism Traditional conservatism Ultraconservatism Red - socialism White - capitalism Socialism vs. Capitalism From: aduate/Ideologies-liberalism.ppt


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