3Thinking about the Current and Former Communist Regimes Weaknesses of Communist regimes appeared by 1980sStates relaxed repressive policiesFactional disputes divided Chinese rulersMikhail Gorbachev became leader of USSR
4Thinking about the Current and Former Communist Regimes Former Communist states declared themselves democraciesTransitions very difficultSuccess stories in Poland, Hungary, and othersChina, Vietnam, North Korea, and Cuba remained Communist regimes
5Thinking about Communism Marxist-Leninist Regimes in Eastern Europe and AsiaSeveral Marxist-like regimes in North Africa, Arabia, and South AmericaThe Leninist StateCommunist Party controlled all political lifeDemocratic centralism was regime paradigmUntil 1950s, USSR controlled “Communist World”China and USSR split in late ‘50s offered an alternative model
6Thinking about Communism Command EconomiesGovernment owned and controlled nearly all industrial and retail activityState planning committees determined output and consumption goalsBenefits of command economies began diminishing in late ‘80s
8Thinking about Communism Key QuestionsWhat contemporary and historical, domestic and international forces shaped their development?How are decisions made in these countries?What role do average citizens play in policy making?What are the public policies?How is political life affected by global forces?How could regimes that seemed so strong collapse so quickly?What have some Communist systems survived?What are the political implications of economic reform in countries that have kept Communism and in those that have abandoned it?Why are they all facing much more serious domestic and global challenges than any of the countries covered in Part 2?
9Socialism, Marxism, Leninism Public ownership of means of productionSubstantial material equalityEconomic and political democracy
10Socialism, Marxism, Leninism Evolution of societyDialecticsHistorical materialismRevolution
16Socialism, Marxism, Leninism De-StalinizationKhrushchev’s “secret speech” (1956)Slight loosening of intellectual controlsBrezhnev era of more control and economic stagnationNo longer a unified Communist movementNeed to change grew at a time leaders were trying to prevent change
17The Marxist-Leninist State The Party StateSecretariatPolitburonomenklaturaThe Graying of Communism: “thumbs” and “fingers”
18The Crisis of Communism: Suicide by Public Policy Reform: too little, too lateGlasnostDemocratization of the PartyPerestroikaNew thinking in foreign policyChange and resistance in Eastern Europe
20The Crisis of Communism: Suicide by Public Policy 1989: The Year That Changed the WorldSolidarity in PolandOpening the Iron Curtain in HungaryEmigration and protest in East GermanyCzechoslovakia’s “Velvet Revolution”Violent revolution in RomaniaMassive protest in Tiananmen Square
21The Crisis of Communism: Suicide by Public Policy The Remnants of the Communist WorldA few Parties and governments were willing to continue to use forceCountries too poor and too closed to outside influencesMost had been outside Soviet Union’s sphere of influence for some time
22Transitions Relative Success: Eastern and Central Europe Relative ethnic homogeneityEconomic progress with reformCommunist leaders made common cause with opposition (pacting)
24Transitions Troubled transitions: The former Soviet Union No real shift of power to new leadersGreat problems with corruptionEthnic conflictThe former YugoslaviaRussian war with rebels in Chechnya
25Transitions What's left of Marxism? North Korea and Cuba have maintained Marxist-Leninist systemsChina and Vietnam have reformed economiesMonopoly power of Communist Parties remains
26Feedback Marxist-Leninist regimes controlled all media Loosening of controls in 1980sRadio, satellite television, cell phones, and the Internet have made controls much more difficult
27Conclusion: The End of the Cold War important because Cold War determined the evolution of Communist and non-Communist statesCommunist past vital to understanding present of Communist and former Communist states today
28Learning ObjectivesAfter mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to:Comprehend the development of communist doctrine and ideology in Europe.Differentiate among and define the following: Marxism, Leninism, Stalinism, TotalitarianismComprehend political and economic doctrines of Karl Marx on communism and class exploitation.Define Marxist theory and explain the following notions and terms: Historical materialism, Dialectics, Proletarian revolutionUnderstand the role of Russian Revolution in 1917 in the development of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and beyond.Comparatively define socialism and communism.Understand the notion of totalitarian regime and totalitarian form of governance.Assess major differences between the command and free market economies.Comparatively analyze similarities and differences between the USSR and the People’s Republic of China in managing economy and political process under communist ideology and party system.
29Learning ObjectivesAfter mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to:Recognize the role of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong in the process of communist state formation and development.Discuss the structure of the Communist Party and government institutions in the Soviet Union. Define the following terms: Nomenklatura, Central Committee, Politburo, General SecretaryUnderstand the role of Mikhail Gorbachev in the process of party, state and ideological reformation in the USSR. Define the following terms: Glasnost, PerestroikaRecognize factors that contribute to the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.Identify challenges of post-communist democratization in Eastern Europe.Define social and political, including of revolutionary character movements in Hungary, Romania, Soviet Union, Poland and other countries against communism.Recognize the process of the USSR disintegration.Discuss the implications of the shock therapy in post-communist countries.Identify remaining communist regimes and discuss their political, economic and social challenges.