Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Rejections To Liberalism Social Studies 30-2."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 7 Rejections To Liberalism Social Studies 30-2
Chapter Issue To what extent is communism or fascism a valid response to liberalism?
Socialism Marxism and CommunismUtopian Socialism Democratic Socialism LeninismStalinism
How was communism in the Soviet Union a rejection of Liberalism? Communism Karl Marx Developed during the Industrial Revolution Stated that the Proletariat would violently rise up against the bourgeoisie and create a classless society.
Communism Collective is more important than the individual. Well-being of the individual is the responsibility of the government. Key characteristics of Communism is completely opposite from Capitalism (Prince vs. Price)
Different Types of Communism During the 20th century, various types evolved: Leninist Communism (Leninism) Stalinist Communism (Stalinism) Maoist Communism (Maoism) Determined on how these leaders interpreted Marxism. (Marxism and Communism are not the same)
Communist Theory of the 20th Century See chart on the top of page 162
Difference Between Marxism and Communism Both stressed the importance of collectivism in society, however.. Marx believed that government had no place in society, he believed in a classless society.
Russian Revolution 1800’s- Russia far less industrialized than the rest of than Western Europe. Due to it’s vast size, and focus on subsistence agriculture(what you need to survive ) Poverty widespread, especially for the peasants who worked for the land-owning nobility.
Russian Revolution Czar- Nicholas II Russians did not have the same basic rights that the rest of Europe had (I.e.-French Revolution) Russia joined the Industrial Revolution late, and therefore they were thrust into social and economic changes. Bourgeoisie benefited from this greatly.
Russian Revolution and Marxism Due to the fact that there was now a wide gap between the rich and the poor, people began to search elsewhere for a solution. Some people sought out Western European philosophers, and read books such as the Communist Manifesto
Civil Unrest In Russia The people of Saint Petersburg marched to the Czar’s Winter Palace to demand food and better working conditions. As they arrived at the gates, the Czar’s army opened fire on the crowd. Resulted in the death and injury of hundreds. This is now known as “Bloody Sunday”
Bloody Sunday Inspired mass strikes across the country. These events caused the Czar to sign reforms that gained the enforcement of Russian basic civil rights, such as freedom of speech and religion. This increased the popularity of Socialism, and would lead to the eventual Revolution of 1917.
Understanding Leninism Russia without a leader during the law few years of the first World War, due to the abdication of Nicholas II. Support for Marxist ideas gained ground among the poor working class and peasants. 1917- Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Communist Bolsheviks called for the end of Russia’s involvement in the War. Called for “Peace! Land! Bread!”
Understanding Leninism Lenin, accompanied by his friend Leon Trotsky, took control of Russia. Turned the government into an interpretation of Marxist Communism, which can be understood as Leninism. Lenin, as did Marx, believed that revolution (and violence if need be) was an acceptable means of achieving an ideal society.
How is Lenin Different Than Marx? Lenin believed that government is necessary to maintain this ideal society. Whereas Marx believed that a classless society is necessary.
Lenin Some opposed Lenin, and an assassination attempt in 1918 resulted in him being shot. Lenin fired back by starting an event known today as the “Red Terror” Many tortures and executions Bolshevik Red Army vs. Anti-Bolshevik White Army
Lenin Supporters of White Army: Liberal Democratic and Capitalist countries United States, Canada, France, Britain Read Army wins, and the U.S.S.R is formed (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) Many countries outside Russia joined this union.