Presentation on theme: "Section Cold War-Independence Movements"— Presentation transcript:
1Section 18-22 Cold War-Independence Movements SOL Review Part VSection 18-22Cold War-Independence Movements
2Beginning of the Cold War (1945-1948) The Yalta Conference and the Soviet control of Eastern Europe –(division of Germany/Berlin)Rivalry between the United States and the U.S.S.R.Democracy and the free enterprise system vs. dictatorship and communismPresident Truman and the Policy of ContainmentEastern Europe: Soviet satellite nations, the Iron Curtain
3Characteristics of the Cold War (1948-1989) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) vs. Warsaw PactKorean War ( ; 38th parallel)Vietnam WarBerlin and significance of Berlin WallCuban Missile Crisis (Kennedy vs. Khrushchev)Nuclear weapons and the theory of deterrence
4Collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Soviet economic collapseNationalism in Warsaw Pact countriesTearing down of Berlin WallBreakup of the Soviet UnionExpansion of NATOTerm to know: containment – A policy for preventing the expansion of communism.
5Conflicts and revolutionary movements in China Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil warChiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi): Nationalist China (island of Taiwan)Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong): Communist China (mainland China)Continuing conflict between the two ChinasCommunist China’s participation in Korean War – sided with North Korea
6Conflicts and revolutionary movements in Vietnam Role of French Imperialism – French IndochinaLeadership of Ho Chi MinhVietnam as a divided nation – communist North vs. nationalist SouthInfluence of policy of containment – domino effectThe United States and the Vietnam WarVietnam as a reunited communist country today.
7Margaret Thatcher British prime minister Free trade and less government regulation of businessClose relationship with United States and U.S. foreign policy – Friends with Ronald ReaganAssertion of United Kingdom’s military power.
8Mikhail Gorbachev Glasnost and perestroika Fall of the Berlin Wall Last president of Soviet Union
9Deng XiaopingReformed Communist China’s economy to a market economy leading to rapid economic growthContinued communist control of government
10Indira GandhiCloser relationship between India and the Soviet Union during the Cold WarDeveloped nuclear program
11Regional setting for the Indian independence movement Indian sub-continentBritish IndiaIndiaPakistan (formerly West Pakistan)Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan)Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)
12Evolution of the Indian independence movement British rule in IndiaIndian National CongressLeadership of Mohandas GandhiRole of civil disobedience and passive resistancePolitical division along Hindu-Muslim lines – Pakistan/IndiaRepublic of IndiaWorld’s largest democratic nationFederal system, giving many powers to the states
13Indian democracyJawaharlal Nehru, a close associate of Gandhi, supported western-style industrialization1950 Constitution sought to prohibit caste discrimination.Ethnic and religious differences caused problems in the development of India as a democratic nation.New economic development has helped to ease financial problems of the nation.
14The independence movement in Africa Right to self-determination (U.N. charter)Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War IIPride in African cultures and heritageResentment of imperial rule and economic exploitationLoss of colonies by Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal; influence of superpower rivalry during the Cold War
15Examples of independence movements and subsequent development efforts West Africa: Peaceful transitionAlgeria: War of Independence from FranceKenya (Britain): Violent struggle under leadership of Jomo KenyattaSouth Africa: Black South Africans’ struggle against apartheid led by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black president of the Republic of South Africa