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Percentage of CHONPS in living things CCarbon18.5% H Hydrogen9.56% OOxygen65.0% NNitrogen3.3% PPhosphorus1.0% SSulfurTrace Other trace 3.0% (Copper, magnesium,

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Presentation on theme: "Percentage of CHONPS in living things CCarbon18.5% H Hydrogen9.56% OOxygen65.0% NNitrogen3.3% PPhosphorus1.0% SSulfurTrace Other trace 3.0% (Copper, magnesium,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Percentage of CHONPS in living things CCarbon18.5% H Hydrogen9.56% OOxygen65.0% NNitrogen3.3% PPhosphorus1.0% SSulfurTrace Other trace 3.0% (Copper, magnesium, etc)

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9 CHONPS molecules make – Carbohydrates (CHO) 1:2:1 – Protein (SONCH) – Lipids (fat) (CH with a few O) – Nucleic Acids DNA (SPONCH) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

10 CHONPS molecules make – Carbohydrates (CHO) 1:2:1 – Protein (SONCH) – Lipids (fat) (CH with a few O) – Nucleic Acids DNA (SPONCH) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

11 CHONPS molecules make – Carbohydrates (CHO) 1:2:1 – Protein (CHONS) – Lipids (fat) (CH with a few O) – Nucleic Acids DNA (SPONCH) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

12 CHONPS molecules make – Carbohydrates (CHO) 1:2:1 – Protein (CHONS) – Lipids (fat) (CH with a few O) – Nucleic Acids DNA (SPONCH) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

13 CHONPS molecules make – Carbohydrates (CHO) 1:2:1 – Protein (CHONS) – Lipids (fat) (CH with a few O) – Nucleic Acids DNA (CHONPS) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

14 Carbohydrates (sugars) CHO Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

15 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

16 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

17 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

18 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

19 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

20 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

21 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

22 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. 1:2:1 ratio for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

23 Common sugars tend to end in “ose” Ex –glucose. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

24 MONOSACCHARIDES: – Simple Sugars: Broken down quickly. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

25 Triose: 3C

26 Pentose: 5C

27 Hexose: 6C GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE GALACTOSE (aldehyde) (ketone) (aldehyde) **USES OF EACH??

28 DISACCHARIDE – two sugars (double sugars) – Lactose, Sucrose, Maltose Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

29 Dehydration Synthesis Condensation Reaction Monomers link to form a polymer; water is removed.

30 Types of sugars Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Lactose = Glucose + Galactose Maltose = Glucose + Glucose Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

31 Types of sugars Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Lactose = Glucose + Galactose Maltose = Glucose + Glucose Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

32 Types of sugars Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Lactose = Glucose + Galactose Maltose = Glucose + Glucose Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

33 Types of sugars Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Lactose = Glucose + Galactose Maltose = Glucose + Glucose Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy **Where is each disaccharide seen?

34 What is the molecular formula of a disaccharide…such as sucrose? Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O 6 So… C 12 H 24 O 12 ?? WHY NOT?? Glycosidic linkage?

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43 *Rings are formed in aqueous solutions

44 Hydrolysis A polymer splits to form two monomers when water is added

45 POLYSACCHARIDES: Many sugars linked together. – Complex Sugars. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

46 2 main functions of polys: 1. Storage: to provide sugar for cells 2. Protection: structural

47 Starch is a complex sugar Starch is a complex sugar – (longer lasting energy) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

48 Glycogen: The storage form of glucose, comes from starch in plants. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

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50 Chitin – Insect exoskeleton Chitin – Insect exoskeleton

51 LIPIDS

52 CHONPS molecules make – Carbohydrates (CHO) 1:2:1 – Protein (CHONS) – Lipids (fat) (CH with a few O) – Nucleic Acids DNA (SPONCH) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

53 What do you know? Hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Made up of polymers or no? Consist mostly of repeated….. Functions – 1. – 2. – 3.

54 Fats: fatty acid + glycerol Non-polar HC tail -hydrophobic 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids -triglyceride HC chains can vary -usually Carboxyl “head” -fatty “acid” HC “tail”

55 Saturated and Unsaturated Double bonds? Straight vs bent? Animal vs plant? Solid vs liquid?

56 Steroids # fused rings? Examples??

57 Phospholipids Function? # of fatty acids Head? Tail?

58 Micelle

59 Nucleic Acids

60 CHONPS molecules make – Carbohydrates (CHO) 1:2:1 – Protein (CHONS) – Lipids (fat) (CH with a few O) – Nucleic Acids DNA (CHONPS) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

61 Monomers

62 Families of Bases

63 DNA

64 RNA

65 So… Function? Monomer? 3 parts of monomer? Families of bases? Complementary Base Pairing? Phosphodiester and hydrogen bonding? DNA vs RNA?

66 Proteins

67 CHONPS molecules make – Carbohydrates (CHO) 1:2:1 – Protein (CHONS) – Lipids (fat) (CH with a few O) – Nucleic Acids DNA (SPONCH) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

68 Movement Transport Signaling Defense Structural support Storage

69 Structure

70 Nonpolar Alanine

71 Polar

72 Charged

73 Polypeptide Bond

74 Levels of structure Primary

75 Levels of Structure Secondary

76 Levels of Structure Tertiary

77 Levels of Structure Quartenary

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80 Denaturation What causes the proteins to form like they do? What happens if the environment changes?


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