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Biochemistry. Macromolecules (large molecules):  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids These are Polymers ( many parts) constructed of Monomers.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry. Macromolecules (large molecules):  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids These are Polymers ( many parts) constructed of Monomers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry

2 Macromolecules (large molecules):  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids These are Polymers ( many parts) constructed of Monomers (single part)

3 polymer

4 polymer

5 monomer

6 How to Connect Monomers- Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule

7 Connecting Monomers- Dehydration reaction Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule

8 Connecting Monomers- Dehydration reaction  joining monomers  loss of water molecule Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule

9 Connecting Monomers- Dehydration reaction  joining monomers  loss of water molecule Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule

10 Connecting Monomers- Dehydration reaction  this takes energy Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule

11 Connecting Monomers- Dehydration reaction  this means energy must be added in order for the reaction to occur Putting together

12 Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule Breaking apart polymers Hydrolysis- (break w/ water)  Adding water molecule

13 Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule Breaking apart polymers Hydrolysis- (break w/ water)  Adding water molecule

14 Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule Breaking apart polymers Hydrolysis- (break w/ water)  Adding water molecule

15 Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule Breaking apart polymers Hydrolysis- (break w/ water)  Adding water molecule

16 Creating Monomers- Hydrolysis reaction  this gives off energy when this happens breaking up

17 Hydrolysis-  Breaking apart polymer  Adding water molecule explain to your partner what is happening

18

19 Macromolecules (large molecules):  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids

20 Carbohydrates-  Fuel - stores energy functions :  Building material - > in plants in animals in plants = cellulose (cell wall) in animals = chitin (insect/ lobster covering)

21 Carbohydrates- types:

22 1)Monosaccharides  Single Sugar

23 Monosaccharides  Structure: Single Sugar  Function: Fuel for cell work ex. glucose - blood sugar fructose - fruit sugar lactose - ??

24 Monosaccharides - structure:  multiple of CH 2 O ex. glucose C 6 H 12 O 6

25 Disaccharides  Two sugar monomers joined by dehydration synthesis

26 Disaccharides  Two sugar monomers joined by dehydration synthesis - JOIN / SPIT OH-

27 Disaccharides  Two sugar monomers joined by dehydration synthesis  ex. sucrose - table sugar

28 Polysaccharides  Many monomers

29 Polysaccharides  Many monomers Functions: 1) Energy storage= starch starch (plant) glycogen (animal)

30 Polysaccharides  Many monomers  Functions: 1) Energy storage= 2) Structural support = cellulose

31 Polysaccharides 2) Structural support = cellulose

32

33 Macromolecules (large molecules):  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids

34 Lipids- Types: 11) Fat~ triglyceride 22) Phospholipid~ cell membranes 33) Steriod 44) Wax

35 Lipids- Structure = have a higher ratio of C & H than Oxygen

36 They HATE water Therefore, are they polar or nonpolar?

37 Lipids- (hydrophobic) 1111) Fats (triglyceride) - functions: -energy storage -cushion internal organs -insulation

38 Types of Lipids: Fats- structure 11 Glycerol FFatty acid chain = hydrophobic Energy storage Cushion

39 Types of Lipids: Fats- structure  Glycerol  Fatty acid chain = hydrophobic Energy storage Cushion +3 fatty acid chains

40 u5j_Us8uI&safe=active

41 2)Phospholipids- 2)Phospholipids- structure  1 hydrophilic head  2 hydrophobic tails

42 2)Phospholipids- 2)Phospholipids- structure  1 hydrophilic head  2 hydrophobic tails

43 3) Steroids -  4 Fused (connected) “rings” cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen

44 4) Wax -  Long CH 2 chain

45

46 Macromolecules (large molecules):  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids

47 Proteins-  Monomer = amino acid  Polymer of amino acids = polypeptides-

48 Proteins- function depends on shape: 1)support 2)structure 3) enzymes

49 Amino Acids = monomer 20 types 20 types

50 Amino Acids C R(VARIABLE) H Carboxyl COOH amino group NH 2 20 types 20 types

51 Amino Acids C R H carboxyl amino group 20 types 20 types 20 varying molecules

52 Proteins-  - precise sequence of amino acids. amino - - carboxyl group group

53 Sequence of amino acids determines HOW the protein works

54 Shape determine s how the protein works

55 Macromolecules (large molecules):  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids

56 Nucleic Acids-  DNA  RNA Programs ALL organism function

57 Nucleic Acids- Composed of: nitrogen base, sugar, phosphate group = NUCLEOTIDE

58 DNARNA


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