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Macromolecules Re-Teach. Organic vs Inorganic Organic Chemistry / Organic Molecules – Organic Molecules contain C bonded to H – Therefore, organic chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules Re-Teach. Organic vs Inorganic Organic Chemistry / Organic Molecules – Organic Molecules contain C bonded to H – Therefore, organic chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules Re-Teach

2 Organic vs Inorganic Organic Chemistry / Organic Molecules – Organic Molecules contain C bonded to H – Therefore, organic chemistry is the study of molecules containing C bonded to H

3 There are four macromolecules of interest. They are: 1.Carbohydrates 2.Lipids 3.Proteins 4.Nucleic Acids

4 Most macromolecules are polymers. This means they are chains of repeating subunits The subunits are called – monomers Polymers are built by a chemical reaction called – dehydration synthesis. Polymers are broken down by a chemical reaction called – hydrolysis.

5 Macromolecule 1: Carbohydrates Names end in –ose Formula is CH 2 O (Ex: C 7 H 14 O 7, C 9 H 18 O 9 ) Function as storage of energy (short term) and structure – In plants, energy is stored as Starch (a polysaccharide) – In animals, energy is stored as Glycogen (a polysaccharide) – Plants use a carb called cellulose for structure – Insects use a carb called chitin for structure in their exoskeleton

6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called – Monosaccharides

7 Carbohydrates Also know: – Disaccharides – examples are sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), maltose (found in grain). Be able to recognize a disaccharide – Polysaccharides – structure & examples

8 Macromolecule #2: Lipids All lipids have one characteristic in common: – They are all hydrophobic Broken down into three groups: – Fats (saturated and unsaturated) – Steroids – Phospholipids

9 Lipids: Functions Fats – Used as long-term energy storage Steroids – Precursors of hormones Phospholipids – Make up cell membranes – Phospholipids have a hydrophilic head (the phosphate end) and a hydrophobic tail (the fatty acid end)

10 Lipids No real monomers for lipids – do not necessarily look alike STEROIDPHOSOPHOLIPID

11 Fats Fats always have one glycerol part, and may have 1 to 3 fatty acid parts Know the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats

12 Both fats and carbs are used for 1.Structure 2.Energy 3.Cell membranes 4.Hormones

13 Polymers are built with 1.Dehydration Synthesis 2.Hydrolysis

14 Cell membranes are made of… 1.Fats 2.Carbs 3.Phospholipids 4.Steroids

15 Chitin and cellulose are both… 1.Structure carbs 2.Structure lipids 3.Storage carbs 4.Storage lipids


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