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Macromolecules Re-Teach

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules Re-Teach"— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules Re-Teach

2 Organic vs Inorganic Organic Chemistry / Organic Molecules
Organic Molecules contain C bonded to H Therefore, organic chemistry is the study of molecules containing C bonded to H

3 There are four macromolecules of interest. They are:
Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

4 Most macromolecules are polymers.
This means they are chains of repeating subunits The subunits are called monomers Polymers are built by a chemical reaction called dehydration synthesis. Polymers are broken down by a chemical reaction called hydrolysis.

5 Macromolecule 1: Carbohydrates
Names end in –ose Formula is CH2O (Ex: C7H14O7, C9H18O9) Function as storage of energy (short term) and structure In plants, energy is stored as Starch (a polysaccharide) In animals, energy is stored as Glycogen (a polysaccharide) Plants use a carb called cellulose for structure Insects use a carb called chitin for structure in their exoskeleton

6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called

7 Carbohydrates Also know:
Disaccharides – examples are sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), maltose (found in grain). Be able to recognize a disaccharide Polysaccharides – structure & examples

8 Macromolecule #2: Lipids
All lipids have one characteristic in common: They are all hydrophobic Broken down into three groups: Fats (saturated and unsaturated) Steroids Phospholipids

9 Lipids: Functions Fats – Used as long-term energy storage
Steroids – Precursors of hormones Phospholipids – Make up cell membranes Phospholipids have a hydrophilic head (the phosphate end) and a hydrophobic tail (the fatty acid end)

10 Lipids No real monomers for lipids – do not necessarily look alike

11 Fats Fats always have one glycerol part, and may have 1 to 3 fatty acid parts Know the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats

12 Both fats and carbs are used for
Structure Energy Cell membranes Hormones

13 Polymers are built with
Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis

14 Cell membranes are made of…
Fats Carbs Phospholipids Steroids

15 Chitin and cellulose are both…
Structure carbs Structure lipids Storage carbs Storage lipids

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