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Organic Chemistry Essentials Chemistry of carbon compounds Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Essentials Chemistry of carbon compounds Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Chemistry Essentials Chemistry of carbon compounds Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds. Carbon can form single, double, and triple bonds.

2 Hydrocarbon compound containing only hydrogen and carbon Ex. CH 4 C 2 H 6

3 Hydrocarbon derivative compound with some hydrogen atoms replaced by other elements (O, N, F, Cl, Br, I) ex. CH 3 Br

4 Straight chained hydrocarbon Ex. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 or C 6 H 14

5 Branched hydrocarbon CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 2 CH 3 or C 6 H 14

6 Saturated hydrocarbon no double or triple bonds

7 Unsaturated hydrocarbon contains double and/or triple bonds not “saturated” with hydrogen

8 Structural formulas Condensed Structural formulas CH 3 -CH 3

9 Alkanes hydrocarbons with only single bonds General formula: C n H 2n+2 names end in -ane boiling pt. increases with # of carbons

10 Name# carbons Structural Formula Methane1CH 4 Ethane2CH 3 CH 3 Propane3CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 Butane4CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Pentane5CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 IUPAC Names

11 Name # carbons Structural Formula Hexane 6 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Heptane 7 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Octane 8 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Nonane 9 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Decane 10 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3

12 Alkenes contain at least one double bond name ends in -ene general formula: C n H 2n

13 Alkynes contain at least one triple bond name ends in -yne general formula: C n H 2n-2

14 Nomenclature naming system IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)

15 Rules for naming alkanes 1. Name the longest carbon chain in the structure. If the chain is cyclic, include the prefix cyclo. 2. Name, in alphabetical order, the kinds of groups which are attached to the chain you named in step 1. Use the appropriate prefix, such as di-, tri-, tetra-, etc., to indicate how many of each group are present.

16 3. Number the carbon atoms in the longest chain consecutively from the end of the chain which allows the attached groups to have the lowest numbers possible. Assign to each group you named in step 2 the number(s) indicating its position(s) on the main chain.

17 Rules for naming alkenes and alkynes 1.Name the longest carbon chain containing the carbon-carbon double or triple bond. The name of the longest chain ends in – ene for an alkene; in –yne for an alkyne. The position of the double or triple bond in the carbon chain is indicated by a number before the name of the chain. 2.Name the groups attached as in alkanes.

18 3. When assigning numbers to atoms in the chain, start numbering from the end of the chain closest to the double or triple bond.

19 Naming branched chain alkanes substituent- atom or group of atoms that takes the place of hydrogen on a hydrocarbon molecule ex. C, O, N, S, P, Cl, F, I, Br

20 Alkyl Group hydrocarbon substituent alkane with one H removed drop the -ane ending and add -yl H H C CH 3 methyl H H H H C C CH 3 CH 2 ethyl H H

21 Name the following: 3,3-diethylhexane

22 4-ethyl-4,6-dimethyl-5-propylnonane

23 6-ethyl-4,5-dipropylnonane

24 Draw the following: 2,2,4-trimethylpentane

25 Draw the following: 3-ethyl-2-hexene

26 Draw the following: 4-bromo-2,2-dichloro-3,5- diethyl-6-fluorooctane

27 Properties of Hydrocarbons nonpolar not attracted to water

28 Structural Isomers compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures. physical and chemical properties differ Butane 2-methylpropane or isobutane CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 -CH-CH 3

29 Geometric Isomers Each of the carbons of the double bond must have at least one substituent. Ex. CH 3 CH=CHCH 3 has 2 geometric isomers because the double bond is not free to rotate. Bond angle (sp 2 ) is 120 o.

30 cis-2-butene trans-2-butene

31 Stereoisomers Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. The two main types of stereoisomerism are: cis-trans isomerism optical isomerism

32 Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism where the two different isomers are the same in every way except being non- superimposable mirror images of each other. Optical isomers are known as chiral molecules. A compound is chiral when it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. The pair of mirror imaged non-superimposable compounds are known as enantiomers. Even though very similar still, different enantiomers of the same chiral drug can have very different pharmological effects, mainly because the proteins they bind to are also chiral. The two enantiomers of bromochlorofluoromethane 4 different groups attached to the carbon

33 Cyclic hydrocarbons compounds that contain a hydrocarbon ring general formula is: C n H 2n Cyclopropane Cyclobutane

34 Aliphatic compounds hydrocarbon compounds which do not contain rings

35 Arenes unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons Benzene, C 6 H 6, is an arene. Benzene is a flat molecule with resonance.

36 Shorthand ways to draw benzene:

37 Aromatic compound any substance in which the bonding is like benzene A benzene ring used as a substituent on a hydrocarbon chain is called a phenyl group. Ex. methylbenzene (toluene)

38 Nomenclature:

39 Natural gas- 80% methane, 10% ethane, 4% propane, 2 % butane Petroleum = complex mixture of hydrocarbons Cracking= a controlled process by which hydrocarbons are broken down or rearranged into smaller, more useful molecules

40 Functional Group Chemically reactive part of an organic molecule Learn these functional groups R means the rest of the molecule (usually hydrocarbon

41 The Common Functional Groups ClassGeneral Formula HalohydrocarbonsR  X AlcoholsR  OH EthersR  O  R Aldehydes

42 The Common Functional Groups ClassGeneral Formula Ketones Carboxylic Acids Esters AminesR  NH 2

43 Halocarbons Organic compounds containing F,Cl, Br, or I Halogen groups are named as substituents just as alkyl groups are. Cl I I Cl-C-Cl CH 3 -CH-CH-CH 3 H Cl-CH 2 -CH 3 CH 3 chloromethane Trichloromethane (chloroform) 2,3-diiodobutane 1-chloropropane bromobenzene

44 Alcohols Methanol Methyl alcohol “wood alcohol” Ethanol Ethyl alcohol “drinking alcohol” Organic compounds with a hydroxyl group (-OH) Naming: drop “e”, add “-ol”

45 propanol propyl alcohol n-propanol 1-propanol 2-propanol isopropanol isopropyl alcohol “rubbing alcohol”

46 Alcohols can be classified as primary, secondary or tertiary.

47 antifreeze

48 Glycerine 1,2,3-propantriol

49 Phenol

50 Properties of Alcohols Hydrogen bonding Short-chained alcohols are soluble in water Fermentation- production of ethanol from sugars by the action of yeast or bacteria C 6 H 12 O 6  2CH 3 CH 2 OH + 2CO 2 Denatured Alcohol- ethanol with an added substance to make it toxic

51 Ethers Compounds in which oxygen is bonded to two carbon groups R-O-R’ Name the R groups in alphabetical order and add the word ether. ethyl methyl ether dimethyl ether ethyl phenyl ether

52 diethyl ether 1 st reliable general anesthetic, 1842

53 Aldehydes Organic compounds in which the carbon of the carbonyl group ( C=O ) is always joined to at least one H. Naming: drop “e”, add “-al”, carbonyl carbon is #1

54 methanal (formaldehyde)

55 CH 3 H CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 2 C=O 3-methylpentanal ethanal

56 Ketones Organic compounds in which the carbon of the carbonyl group is joined to 2 other carbons. The carbonyl group is in the middle of the chain instead of the end of a chain as in an aldehyde. Naming: drop “e”, and “one”. If carbonyl can be in more than one position, give it a # Propanone (acetone) 3-hexanone

57 Naming: drop “e”, add “oic acid” The carboxyl carbon is always #1.

58 methanoic acid “formic acid” propanoic Acid “propionic acid” butanoic acid

59 Esters Derivatives of carboxylic acids in which the –OH of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an –OR from an alcohol Formed by combination of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in a dehydration reaction Often common flavors and odors Naming: Name alkyl group, then acid with –ate ending

60 methyl ethanoate or methyl acetate methyl methanoate or methyl formate ethyl ethanoate or ethyl acetate (apple scent)

61 Amines -NH 2 the suffix amine is added to the alkyl substituent can also be named as an amino group ethylamine cyclohexylamine 3-aminopropanoic acid

62 POLYMERS made of repeating units called monomers

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