Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Essentials"— Presentation transcript:
1Organic Chemistry Essentials Chemistry of carbon compoundsCarbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds.Carbon can form single, double, and triple bonds.
2Hydrocarboncompound containing only hydrogen and carbonEx. CH C2H6
3Hydrocarbon derivative compound with some hydrogen atoms replaced by other elements (O, N, F, Cl, Br, I)ex. CH3Br
12Alkenes contain at least one double bond name ends in -ene general formula: CnH2n
13Alkynes contain at least one triple bond name ends in -yne general formula: CnH2n-2
14Nomenclature naming system IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)
15Rules for naming alkanes 1. Name the longest carbon chain in the structure. If the chain is cyclic, include the prefix cyclo.2. Name, in alphabetical order, the kinds of groups which are attached to the chain you named in step 1. Use the appropriate prefix, such as di-, tri-, tetra-, etc., to indicate how many of each group are present.
163. Number the carbon atoms in the longest chain consecutively from the end of the chain which allows the attached groups to have the lowest numbers possible. Assign to each group you named in step 2 the number(s) indicating its position(s) on the main chain.
17Rules for naming alkenes and alkynes Name the longest carbon chain containing the carbon-carbon double or triple bond. The name of the longest chain ends in –ene for an alkene; in –yne for an alkyne. The position of the double or triple bond in the carbon chain is indicated by a number before the name of the chain.Name the groups attached as in alkanes.
183. When assigning numbers to atoms in the chain, start numbering from the end of the chain closest to the double or triple bond.
19Naming branched chain alkanes substituent- atom or group of atoms that takes the place of hydrogen on a hydrocarbon moleculeex. C, O, N, S, P, Cl, F, I, Br
20Alkyl Group hydrocarbon substituent alkane with one H removed drop the -ane ending and add -ylHH C CH3 methylH HH C C CH3CH2 ethyl
26Draw the following:4-bromo-2,2-dichloro-3,5-diethyl-6-fluorooctane
27Properties of Hydrocarbons nonpolarnot attracted to water
28Structural Isomerscompounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures.physical and chemical properties differButane methylpropane orisobutaneCH3-CH2-CH2-CH CH3CH3-CH-CH3
29Geometric IsomersEach of the carbons of the double bond must have at least one substituent.Ex. CH3CH=CHCH3 has 2 geometric isomers because the double bond is not free to rotate. Bond angle (sp2) is 120o.
31StereoisomersStereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer.The two main types of stereoisomerism are:cis-trans isomerismoptical isomerism
32Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism where the two different isomers are the same in every way except being non-superimposable mirror images of each other. Optical isomers are known as chiral molecules.A compound is chiral when it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. The pair of mirror imaged non-superimposable compounds are known as enantiomers. Even though very similar still, different enantiomers of the same chiral drug can have very different pharmological effects, mainly because the proteins they bind to are also chiral.4 different groups attached to the carbonThe two enantiomers of bromochlorofluoromethane
33Cyclic hydrocarbons compounds that contain a hydrocarbon ring general formula is: CnH2nCyclopropane Cyclobutane
34Aliphatic compoundshydrocarbon compounds which do not contain rings
35Arenes unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons Benzene, C6H6, is an arene. Benzene is a flat molecule with resonance.
39Natural gas- 80% methane, 10% ethane, 4% propane, 2 % butanePetroleum = complex mixture of hydrocarbonsCracking= a controlled process by which hydrocarbons are broken down or rearranged into smaller, more useful molecules
40Functional Group Chemically reactive part of an organic molecule Learn these functional groupsR means the rest of the molecule (usually hydrocarbon
41The Common Functional Groups Class General FormulaHalohydrocarbons RXAlcohols ROHEthers RORAldehydes
42The Common Functional Groups Class General FormulaKetonesCarboxylic AcidsEstersAmines RNH2
43Halocarbons Organic compounds containing F,Cl, Br, or I Halogen groups are named as substituents just as alkyl groups are.Cl I ICl-C-Cl CH3-CH-CH-CH3HCl-CH2-CH3CH3bromobenzene2,3-diiodobutaneTrichloromethane (chloroform)chloromethane1-chloropropane
44Alcohols Organic compounds with a hydroxyl group (-OH) Naming: drop “e”, add “-ol”MethanolMethyl alcohol“wood alcohol”EthanolEthyl alcohol“drinking alcohol”
50Properties of Alcohols Hydrogen bondingShort-chained alcohols are soluble in waterFermentation- production of ethanol from sugars by the action of yeast or bacteriaC6H12O6 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2Denatured Alcohol- ethanol with an added substance to make it toxic
51Ethers Compounds in which oxygen is bonded to two carbon groups R-O-R’ Name the R groups in alphabetical order and add the word ether.dimethyl etherethyl methyl etherethyl phenyl ether
52diethyl ether1st reliable general anesthetic, 1842
53AldehydesOrganic compounds in which the carbon of the carbonyl group ( C=O ) is always joined to at least one H.Naming: drop “e”, add “-al”, carbonyl carbon is #1
56KetonesOrganic compounds in which the carbon of the carbonyl group is joined to 2 other carbons. The carbonyl group is in the middle of the chain instead of the end of a chain as in an aldehyde.Naming: drop “e”, and “one”. If carbonyl can be in more than one position, give it a #3-hexanonePropanone(acetone)
57Naming: drop “e”, add “oic acid” The carboxyl carbon is always #1.
59Esters Derivatives of carboxylic acids in which the –OH of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an –OR from an alcoholFormed by combination of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in a dehydration reactionOften common flavors and odorsNaming: Name alkyl group, then acid with –ate ending