Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry a branch of chemistry concerned with the study of carbon and its compounds."— Presentation transcript:
1 Organic Chemistrya branch of chemistry concerned with the study of carbon and its compounds.
2 Hydrocarbonsthe simplest class of organic compounds containing carbon & hydrogen onlyhydrocarbonsaromaticaliphaticalkanescycloalkanesalkenesalkynes
3 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon with no aromatic ringExample:
4 Aromatic Hydrocarbons a hydrocarbon containing one or more rings with delocalized electron systems(example is benzene, C6H6)
5 Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons general formula is CnH2n+2 ex: CH4 (methane)single covalent bonds (C-C) between carbon to carbon molecules are presentuses the –ane ending in its name
6 Alkanes The first 10 alkanes are named as follows: CH4 methane C6H14 hexaneC2H6 ethane C7H16 heptaneC3H8 propane C8H18 octaneC4H10 butane C9H20 nonaneC5H12 pentane C10H22 decane
7 Cycloalkanes alkanes whose carbon atoms are joined in rings general formula is CnH2nex: C6H12 (cyclohexane)uses the prefix cyclo and –ane ending in its name
8 Alkenes (Olefins) unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain C=C general formula is CnH2n (same as cyloalkane)ex:C2H4 (ethene)uses the –ene ending in its name
9 Alkynes (Paraffins) unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain CC general formula is CnH2n-2ex: C2H2 (ethyne)uses the –yne ending in its name
10 Important Notesan alkane less one hydrogen atom is called an alkyl group (example is when a hydrogen atom is removed from methane, it is called methyl, -CH3)
11 Naming AlkanesStep 1:Determine the parent name by finding the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms in the molecule. The parent name is the name of the alkane corresponding to the longest continuous carbon chain. The longest chain may not be always written horizontally.
16 Naming AlkanesTwo or more identical substituents present in a molecule are indicated by the use of the prefixes di for 2, tri for 3 tetra for 4, etc. Each of the identical substituents must have a number
18 Naming AlkanesWhen two or more substituents are present, their names are listed in alphabetical order
19 Naming Alkanes Parent: heptane Substituent: methyl and ethyl Parent: heptaneSubstituent: methyl and ethylLocation: C2- methyl and C3- ethylName: 3 – ethyl – 2 – methylheptaneNote: the name of the compound is written in single word.
20 Naming Alkenes & Alkynes Step 1:Choose the longest continuous carbon chain that contains the double/triple bond as the parent chain.Step 2:Number the chain to give the lowest number to the first carbon of the double/triple bond.
21 Naming Alkenes & Alkynes Step 3:Substitute the ending -ene for ending –ane in the name of the corresponding alkane to obtain the parent alkene name and substitute –yne to obtain the parent alkyne. The position of the double/triple bond is indicated by a number.Step 4:Write the complete name of the compound with the correct number of all substituents, which are listed in alphabetical order.
24 Aromatics: BenzeneMonosubstituted benzenes are named by combining the substituent name w/ the word benzene.Name: 1 - ethylbenzene
25 For disubstituted benzenes the 3 possible isomers are named using the prefixes ortho (o), meta (m) & para (p) to designate the 1,2 – 1,3 & 1,4 –relationships of sustituents on the benzene ring:Name: 1,3-Dibromobenzeneor meta-Dibromobenzene
26 Exercises: Draw the structure of the following hydrocarbons: 2,2-dimethylpentane4-ethyl-2,3-dimethyloctane3-ethyl-3-methyl-1-pentene1,3- dibromobenzene
27 Exercises:Give the name of the following Hydrocarbons:1.2.
29 Hydrocarbon Derivatives these are compounds that are formed when one, two or three hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon molecules are replaced by atoms or group of atoms that are responsible for the properties of that compound. This group of atoms is called the functional group.
30 ALCOHOLS Contains the –OH group (hydroxyl) ex: CH3-OH methanol CH3CH2-OH ethanolphenol