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Organic Chemistry a branch of chemistry concerned with the study of carbon and its compounds. a branch of chemistry concerned with the study of carbon.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry a branch of chemistry concerned with the study of carbon and its compounds. a branch of chemistry concerned with the study of carbon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Chemistry a branch of chemistry concerned with the study of carbon and its compounds. a branch of chemistry concerned with the study of carbon and its compounds.

2 Hydrocarbons the simplest class of organic compounds containing carbon & hydrogen only the simplest class of organic compounds containing carbon & hydrogen only hydrocarbons aromaticaliphatic alkanescycloalkanesalkenesalkynes

3 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon with no aromatic ring Example:

4 Aromatic Hydrocarbons a hydrocarbon containing one or more rings with delocalized electron systems (example is benzene, C 6 H 6 )

5 Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons general formula is C n H 2n+2 general formula is C n H 2n+2 ex: CH 4 (methane) single covalent bonds (C-C) between carbon to carbon molecules are present single covalent bonds (C-C) between carbon to carbon molecules are present uses the –ane ending in its name uses the –ane ending in its name

6 Alkanes The first 10 alkanes are named as follows: CH 4 methaneC 6 H 14 hexane C 2 H 6 ethaneC 7 H 16 heptane C 3 H 8 propaneC 8 H 18 octane C 4 H 10 butaneC 9 H 20 nonane C 5 H 12 pentaneC 10 H 22 decane

7 Cycloalkanes alkanes whose carbon atoms are joined in rings alkanes whose carbon atoms are joined in rings general formula is C n H 2n general formula is C n H 2n ex: C 6 H 12 (cyclohexane) uses the prefix cyclo and –ane ending in its name

8 Alkenes (Olefins) unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain C=C unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain C=C general formula is C n H 2n (same as cyloalkane) general formula is C n H 2n (same as cyloalkane) ex:C 2 H 4 (ethene) ex:C 2 H 4 (ethene) uses the –ene ending in its name uses the –ene ending in its name

9 Alkynes (Paraffins) unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain C C unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain C C general formula is C n H 2n-2 general formula is C n H 2n-2 ex: C 2 H 2 (ethyne) uses the –yne ending in its name uses the –yne ending in its name

10 Important Notes an alkane less one hydrogen atom is called an alkyl group (example is when a hydrogen atom is removed from methane, it is called methyl, -CH 3 ) an alkane less one hydrogen atom is called an alkyl group (example is when a hydrogen atom is removed from methane, it is called methyl, -CH 3 )

11 Naming Alkanes Step 1: Determine the parent name by finding the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms in the molecule. The parent name is the name of the alkane corresponding to the longest continuous carbon chain. The longest chain may not be always written horizontally. Determine the parent name by finding the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms in the molecule. The parent name is the name of the alkane corresponding to the longest continuous carbon chain. The longest chain may not be always written horizontally.

12 Naming Alkanes CH 3 1 CH 2 2 CH 2 3 CH 2 4 CH 2 5 CH 3 6 hexane CH 3 6 CH 2 5 CH 2 4 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 2 CH – methylhexane 3 – methylhexane

13 Naming Alkanes If the molecule contains two chains of equal length, choose the one with the greater number of substituents as the parent chain. If the molecule contains two chains of equal length, choose the one with the greater number of substituents as the parent chain.

14 Naming Alkanes Step 2 Step 2 name each substituent and precede this name with the number of carbon atom on the parent chain to which it is bonded. name each substituent and precede this name with the number of carbon atom on the parent chain to which it is bonded.

15 Naming Alkanes Parent: butane Substituent: methyl Location: C2- methyl Name: 2 – methylbutane

16 Naming Alkanes Two or more identical substituents present in a molecule are indicated by the use of the prefixes di for 2, tri for 3 tetra for 4, etc. Each of the identical substituents must have a number

17 Naming Alkanes Parent: butane Substituent: methyl Location: C2 and C3- methyl Name: 2,3 –dimethylbutane

18 Naming Alkanes When two or more substituents are present, their names are listed in alphabetical order

19 Naming Alkanes Parent: heptane Substituent: methyl and ethyl Location: C2- methyl and C3- ethyl Name: 3 – ethyl – 2 – methylheptane Note: the name of the compound is written in single word.

20 Naming Alkenes & Alkynes Step 1: Choose the longest continuous carbon chain that contains the double/triple bond as the parent chain. Step 2: Number the chain to give the lowest number to the first carbon of the double/triple bond.

21 Naming Alkenes & Alkynes Step 3: Substitute the ending -ene for ending –ane in the name of the corresponding alkane to obtain the parent alkene name and substitute –yne to obtain the parent alkyne. The position of the double/triple bond is indicated by a number. Step 4: Write the complete name of the compound with the correct number of all substituents, which are listed in alphabetical order.

22 Examples Parent: octene Location: C3 Substituent: methyl, ethyl & bromo Location: C3,C6- methyl; C4 bromo; C6-ethyl Name:4-Bromo–6-ethyl-3,6-dimethyl-3-octene

23 Examples Parent: butyne Location: C1 Substituent: methyl Location: C3 Name: 3 – methyl – 1- butyne or 3- methylbutyne

24 Aromatics: Benzene Monosubstituted benzenes are named by combining the substituent name w/ the word benzene. Name: 1 - ethylbenzene

25 For disubstituted benzenes the 3 possible isomers are named using the prefixes ortho (o), meta (m) & para (p) to designate the 1,2 – 1,3 & 1,4 –relationships of sustituents on the benzene ring: Name: 1,3-Dibromobenzene or meta-Dibromobenzene

26 Exercises: Draw the structure of the following hydrocarbons: 1.2,2-dimethylpentane 2.4-ethyl-2,3-dimethyloctane 3.3-ethyl-3-methyl-1-pentene 4.1,3- dibromobenzene

27 Exercises: Give the name of the following Hydrocarbons: 1. 2.

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29 Hydrocarbon Derivatives these are compounds that are formed when one, two or three hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon molecules are replaced by atoms or group of atoms that are responsible for the properties of that compound. This group of atoms is called the functional group.

30 ALCOHOLS Contains the –OH group (hydroxyl) ex: CH 3 -OHmethanol CH 3 CH 2 -OHethanol phenol

31 Some Typical Alcohols OH rubbing alcoholCH 3 CHCH 3 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol) antifreeze HO-CH 2 -CH 2 -OH 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol) OH glycerolHO-CH 2 -CH-CH 2 OH Anti-freeze

32 Ethers Contain an -O- between two carbon groups CH 3 -O-CH 3 dimethyl ether CH 3 -O-CH 2 CH 3 ethyl methyl ether

33 Aldehydes and Ketones In an aldehyde, an H atom is attached to a carbonyl group Ocarbonyl group CH 3 -C-H In a ketone, two carbon groups are attached to a carbonyl group Ocarbonyl group CH 3 -C-CH 3

34 Aldehydes as Flavorings

35 Ketones O O Butter flavorCH 3 -C-C-CH 3 butanedione propanone

36 Amines Organic compounds of nitrogen N Classified as primary, secondary, tertiary CH 3 CH 3 CH 3NH 2 CH 3NH CH 3N CH 3 1° 2° 3°

37 Alkaloids Physiologically active nitrogen-containing compounds Obtained from plants Used as anesthetics, antidepressants, and stimulants Many are addictive

38 Some Common Amines

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40 Carboxylic Acid Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl group on carbon 1. O CH 3 COH CH 3COOH carboxyl group

41 Some Carboxylic Acids & their Names Citric acid Aspirin

42 Amides Derivatives of carboxylic acids where an amino (-NH 2 ) group replaces the – OH group. O O CH 3 COH CH 3 CNH 2 carboxylic acid amide acetic acid acetamide

43 Some Amides & their Names O CH 3 C–NHCH 3 N-methylethanamide (IUPAC) N-methylacetamide (common)

44 Esters In an ester, the H in the carboxyl group is replaced with an alkyl group O CH 3 CO CH 3 CH 3COO CH 3 ester group

45 Esters in Plants Esters give flowers and fruits their pleasant fragrances and flavors.

46 Some Esters and Their Names Flavor/Odor Raspberries HCOOCH 2 CH 3 ethyl methanoate (IUPAC) ethyl formate (common) Pineapples CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOCH 2 CH 3 ethyl butanoate (IUPAC) ethyl butyrate (common)

47 Exercises: Identify the functional groups present in the following compounds: (1) (2) (4) (3)

48 (5) (8) (7) (6)

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