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Nomenclature and Functional Groups Classifying organic compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature and Functional Groups Classifying organic compounds."— Presentation transcript:


2 Nomenclature and Functional Groups

3 Classifying organic compounds

4 Hydrocarbons __________ - Organic compounds that contain only carbon & hydrogen __________ - contain only single covalent bonds __________ - contain one or more carbon - carbon double bond __________ - contain one or more carbon- carbon triple bond

5 Saturated & Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Saturated hydrocarbons – contain only __________ carbon-carbon bonds (__________ ) Unsaturated hydrocarbons – contain double carbon-carbon bonds (__________) or triple carbon-carbon (__________ ) bonds

6 Saturation bonding: Multiple bonds and unsaturation Saturated: no more bonds can be added Unsaturated: more bonds can be formed  More reactive compounds

7 Formulas Alkanes = C n H 2n+2 Alkenes = C n H 2n Alkynes = C n H 2n-2

8 alkanes Only carbon and hydrogen All single bonds

9 Alkenes contain double bonds

10 alkenes Only carbon and hydrogen A carbon to carbon double bond

11 Examples of alkynes

12 Isomerism Same number and type of atoms Different arrangements Hydrocarbons can have straight and branched chains

13 Nomenclature Must memorize prefixes To name, look at the formula for the hydrocarbon Determine if it is an alkane, alkene, or alkyne Use the prefix for the number of carbons Add ending (ane, ene, yne) Prefix# of carbon atoms Meth-1 Eth-2 Prop-3 But-4 Pent-5 Hex-6 Hept-7 Oct-8 Non-9 Dec-10

14 Mnemonic for first four prefixes First four prefixes Meth- Eth- Prop- But- Monkeys Eat Peeled Bananas

15 Numbering carbons Draw 1-pentene Name these C2H4C2H4

16 Multiple multiple bonds Give 1 st bond (1 st point of difference) lowest # include di, tri, tetra, penta, etc. before ene/yne Comma between #s, hyphen between #-letter CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH=C=CH 2

17 Cyclic structures Cyclic structures are circular Have “cyclo” in name Draw the following: cyclobutene 1,3-cyclopentadiene cyclopropane Name the following:

18 Naming side chains Root is the longest possible HC chain Must contain multiple bonds if present Add -yl to get name of side chain Common side chains include: CH 3 - methyl CH 3 CH 2 - ethyl CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 - propyl (CH 3 ) 2 CH- isopropyl Br- (bromo) Cl- (chloro) F- (fluoro) I- (iodo)

19 Functional groups Chemistry of organic compounds is determined by functional groups Functional group is an atom or group of atoms that are different from C Heteroatoms confer very different properties on the substance

20 Functional Groups ClassFunctional group Alcohol R – OH Ether R — O — R ’ Aldehyde O || R — C — H Ketone O || R — C — R ’ Carboxylic acid O || R — C — OH Ester O || R — C — O — R ’ Amine R ’ | R — N — R ’’

21 alcohols Only one oxygen Has an O-H group

22 Ethers Ethers contain R 1 -O-R 2 No -OH bonds Not soluble in water Anesthetics

23 Aldehydes / sugars Only one oxygen Has a C=O group

24 Ketones Ketone is R 1 R 2 CO Acetone is a common solvent Smell found in cinnamon Raspberries

25 Carboxylic acids Commonly found in citrus fruits and any sour foods Formic acid present in ant and bee stings

26 Esters Has 2 oxygens One oxygen is in a carbon sandwich Ester loves to eat her carbon sandwich ?

27 Amines: the stench of death Amines contain NR 1 R 2 R 3 Rotting fish Decaying flesh

28 Alkyl halides are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.

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