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Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons 1.To understand the types of bonds formed by the carbon atom 2.To learn about the alkanes 3.To learn about structural.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons 1.To understand the types of bonds formed by the carbon atom 2.To learn about the alkanes 3.To learn about structural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons 1.To understand the types of bonds formed by the carbon atom 2.To learn about the alkanes 3.To learn about structural isomers 4.To learn to draw structural formulas 5.To learn to name alkanes and substituted alkanes 6.To learn about the composition and uses of petroleum 7.To learn about the chemical reactions of alkanes Objectives

2 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons Carbon Chemistry Carbon is unusual –Bonds strongly to itself –Forms long chains or rings Biomolecule – molecule that functions in maintaining and reproducing life Organic compounds – vast majority of carbon compounds –Exceptions – oxides and carbonates

3 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Carbon Bonding When carbon has 4 atoms bound to it these atoms have a tetrahedral shape.

4 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Carbon Bonding Double bond Triple bond Sharing of 3 pairs of electrons Sharing of 2 pairs of electrons

5 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons B. Alkanes Hydrocarbons – compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen –Saturated – all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds –Unsaturated – containing carbon-carbon multiple bonds

6 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons B. Alkanes Alkanes – saturated hydrocarbons

7 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons B. Alkanes Normal, straight-chain or unbranched hydrocarbons Contain strings or chains of carbon atoms –Representations

8 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons B. Alkanes

9 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons C. Structural Formulas and Isomerism Structural isomerism – occurs when 2 molecules have the same atoms but different bonds

10 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons D. Naming Alkanes The name for an alkane is based on Greek root with the suffix –ane. Basic principles

11 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons D. Naming Alkanes For branched hydrocarbons use the longest continuous chain for the root name. Basic principles

12 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons D. Naming Alkanes Alkanes missing one H atom can have another hydrocarbon attached at the missing H point. Basic principles

13 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons D. Naming Alkanes Specify the names of substituents by numbering the C atoms starting at the end closest to the branching. Basic principles

14 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons D. Naming Alkanes Basic principles

15 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons D. Naming Alkanes If a substituent occurs more than once use a prefix to show this. Basic principles 2,3-dimethylpentane

16 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons D. Naming Alkanes

17 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons E. Petroleum Hydrocarbons are an energy resource.

18 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons E. Petroleum Petroleum – thick, dark liquid composed mostly of hydrocarbon compounds Natural gas – consists mostly of methane, usually associated with petroleum deposits

19 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons F. Reactions of Alkanes Combustion – reaction with oxygen Substitution – one or more H atoms are replaced with different atoms

20 Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons F. Reactions of Alkanes Dehydrogenation – one or more H atoms are removed and the product is an unsaturated hydrocarbon

21 Section 20.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 1.To learn to name hydrocarbons with double and triple bonds 2.To understand addition reactions 3.To learn about the aromatic hydrocarbons 4.To learn to name aromatic compounds Objectives

22 Section 20.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons A. Alkenes and Alkynes Alkenes – hydrocarbon containing carbon-carbon double bonds –General formula C n H 2n Alkynes – hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon triple bonds –General formula C n H 2n - 2

23 Section 20.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons A. Alkenes and Alkynes

24 Section 20.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Addition reactions – new atoms form single bonds to the carbons formerly involved in a double or triple bond –Hydrogenation – use H 2 as the reactant to be added Reactions of Alkenes –Halogenation – addition of halogen atoms Polymerization – joining of many small molecules to form a large molecule A. Alkenes and Alkynes

25 Section 20.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons B. Aromatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbons – cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons with strong aromas

26 Section 20.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons B. Aromatic Hydrocarbons Benzene – simplest aromatic hydrocarbon

27 Section 20.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons C. Naming Aromatic Compounds Monosubstituted benzenes – use the substituent name as a prefix of benzene

28 Section 20.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons C. Naming Aromatic Compounds Disubstituted benzenes – use numbers to indicate the position of substituents and the substituent name as a prefix of benzene

29 Section 20.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons C. Naming Aromatic Compounds Complex aromatic molecules

30 Section 20.3 Introduction to Functional Groups and Alcohols 1.To learn the common functional groups in organic molecules 2.To learn about simple alcohols and how to name them 3.To learn about how some alcohols are made and used Objectives

31 Section 20.3 Introduction to Functional Groups and Alcohols A. Functional Groups Functional group – additional atom or groups of atoms (containing elements in addition to H and C) found on a mostly hydrocarbon molecule

32 Section 20.3 Introduction to Functional Groups and Alcohols B. Alcohols All alcohols contain the –OH group.

33 Section 20.3 Introduction to Functional Groups and Alcohols B. Alcohols

34 Section 20.3 Introduction to Functional Groups and Alcohols C. Properties and Uses of Alcohols Methanol –starting material for making acetic acid and many adhesives, fibers and plastics –motor fuel Ethanol –Fermentation product –Fuel additive used to make gasohol

35 Section 20.3 Introduction to Functional Groups and Alcohols C. Properties and Uses of Alcohols Other alcohols –Ethylene glycol – automotive antifreeze –Phenol – production of adhesives and plastics

36 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds 1.To learn about aldehydes and ketones 2.To learn to name aldehydes and ketones 3.To learn about some common carboxylic acids and esters 4.To learn about some common polymers Objectives

37 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds A. Aldehydes and Ketones Carbonyl group – carbon oxygen group found in both aldehydes and ketones –Ketone – carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms

38 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds A. Aldehydes and Ketones –Aldehyde – carbonyl group always appears on the end of the hydrocarbon chain and has at least one H atom bonded to the carbonyl group

39 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds A. Aldehydes and Ketones

40 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds B. Naming Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes –Use the parent alkane name. Remove the  e and replace it with  al.

41 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds B. Naming Aldehydes and Ketones Ketones –Use the parent alkane name. Remove the  e and replace it with  one. Use a number to indicate the position of the carbonyl group in the hydrocarbon chain. –Select the number so that the carbonyl has the lowest possible number.

42 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds C. Carboxylic Acids and Esters Carboxylic acids – contains the carboxyl group –COOH General formula RCOOH Weak acids in solution

43 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds C. Carboxylic Acids and Esters To name carboxylic acids –Use the parent alkane name. Remove the  e and replace it with  oic.

44 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds C. Carboxylic Acids and Esters

45 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds C. Carboxylic Acids and Esters Esters – a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol to form an ester and a water molecule –General formula

46 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds C. Carboxylic Acids and Esters To name esters –Use the alkyl name from the alcohol followed by the acid name, where the –ic ending is replaced by –ate. isopropylethanoate

47 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds D. Polymers Polymers – large chainlike molecules made from many small molecules called monomers –Simplest polymer – polyethylene –Polyethylene results from addition polymerization.

48 Section 20.4 Additional Organic Compounds D. Polymers Condensation polymerization – a small molecule (often water) is released for each addition of a monomer to the polymer chain Copolymer – 2 different types of monomers combine to form the chain –Nylon


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