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Chapter 24: Organic chemistry

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1 Chapter 24: Organic chemistry
Chemistry 1062: Principles of Chemistry II Andy Aspaas, Instructor

2 Carbon Carbon: central element of organic chemistry Organic compounds: compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds 4 valence electrons: 4 must be shared from other atoms 4 single bonds (tetrahedral) 1 double bond, 2 single bonds (trigonal planar) 2 double bonds (linear) 1 triple bond, 1 single bond (linear)

3 Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon: molecule that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms Saturated hydrocarbons: only C–C single bonds May be cyclic or acyclic Unsaturated hydrocarbons: contain some carbon-carbon double and/or triple bonds Aromatic hydrocarbons: contain benzene rings (Non-aromatic hydrocarbons are aliphatic)

4 Alkanes and cycloalkanes
Alkanes are acyclic saturated hydrocarbons Cycloalkanes are cyclic saturated hydrocarbons Molecular formula: indicates only type and quantity of atoms in a molecule Structural formula: indicates connectivity in the molecule (which atoms are bonded to which) Structural formulas look like Lewis structures Condensed structural formulas don’t draw the bonds, but still indicate connectivity

5 Straight-chain alkanes
Straight-chain alkanes (or normal alkanes) have all carbons in a row n- at beginning indicates straight-chain (normal) General formula: CnH2n+2 Name Molecular formula Structural formula Methane CH4 Ethane C2H6 CH3CH3 Propane C3H8 CH3CH2CH3 n-Butane C4H10 CH3(CH2)2CH3

6 Straight-chain alkanes (5 C through 10 C)
For straight-chain alkanes 5 C through 10 C, use Greek prefix followed by -ane Name Molecular formula Structural formula n-pentane C5H12 CH3(CH2)3CH3 n-hexane C6H14 CH3(CH2)4CH3 n-heptane C7H16 CH3(CH2)5CH3 n-octane C8H18 CH3(CH2)6CH3 n-nonane C9H20 CH3(CH2)7CH3 n-decane C10H22 CH3(CH2)8CH3

7 Isomerism in alkanes n-Butane has a contsitutional isomer (same number and kind atoms, different bonds) Same molecular formula, different structural formula Isobutane: branched, all carbons not in a row CH3(CH3)CHCH3 (parentheses mean group is not in the main chain)

8 Branched alkanes More complex branched alkanes require different naming rules Any of the straight-chain alkanes can be made into “substitutents” - or branches off a main chain Methane becomes methyl as a branch (—CH3) Ethane becomes ethyl as a branch (—CH2CH3), etc

9 Naming complex branched alkanes
Start by identifying the longest carbon chain Identify branches off the longest chain as their substituent name (methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc) Number longest chain starting at end closest to the first branch Name the compound, starting with branches and indicating the number on the main chain to which the branch is attached

10 Cycloalkanes Saturated hydrocarbons which form a ring of carbon atoms
General formula CnH2n Prefix name with cyclo- and name as if straight chain E.g. cyclobutane (4 carbons); cyclohexane (6 carbons) Any organic molecule can be drawn as a line-angle formula, where carbons and hydrogens are not explicitly shown. Line-angle drawing of cyclohexane is simply a hexagon Practice drawing!

11 Alkenes and alkynes Alkenes and alkynes: unsaturated hydrocarbons Typically more reactive than alkanes (reactions can occur at carbon-carbon double and triple bonds) Hydrogenation: addition of two hydrogen atoms across a double bond Alkenes: general formula CnH2n just like cycloalkanes Names end with -ene (compared to -ane ending of alkanes)

12 Naming alkenes and alkynes
Ethene is the simplest alkene (CH2=CH2) Common name is “ethylene” When there are more than one possible place to put the double bond, it’s location must be indicated Start numbering carbons at end closest to the double bond, and indicate the lower-numbered carbon involved in double bond Ex. 1-butene: CH2=CH–CH2–CH3 2-butene: CH3–CH=CH–CH3 Alkynes are named the same way, with -yne instead of -ene

13 Aromatic hydrocarbons
Benzene ring: six-membered carbon ring with alternating single- and double-bonds

14 Nomenclature of aromatic hydrocarbons
For singly substitued benzenes, use substituent names and benzene as the suffix (ex. Methylbenzene, ethylbenzene, etc.) When 2 identical groups are substituted on a benzene, ortho-, meta-, and para- are used to differentiate the isomers Multiple substituents require the benzene ring to be numbered from 1-6 so that the substitutents get the smallest possible numbers

15 Hydrocarbon derivatives
Most organic molecules contain elements other than carbon and hydrogen Heteroatom: atom that’s not C or H in an organic molecule Functional group: common grouping of atoms which reacts in a particular way Oxygen-containing functional groups are the most common

16 Oxygen-containing functional groups
Molecule fragments which symbolize oxygen-containing functional groups R and R’: symbols for general hydrocarbon groups Alcohol Aldehyde Ether Ester Ketone Carboxylic acid

17 Alcohols Alcohol: R–OH functional group Named with similar rules to hydrocarbons Main chain must contain carbon bonded to –OH Suffix -ol on chain name Position of –OH group indicated by number (omit if unnecessary) Ex. Methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol

18 Ethers Ether: R–O–R’ Common name: list the two R groups and suffix with “ether” Ex. Methyl ethyl ether, diethyl ether IUPAC name: alkoxy derivative of longer chain Ex. Methoxy ethane, ethoxy ethane Diethyl ether (or just ‘ether’) used as solvent, previously an anesthetic

19 Aldehydes Aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters all contain a carbonyl group (C=O double bond) Aldehyde: carbonyl with a hydrogen attached Usually abbreviated –CHO Methanal: CH2O (common name: formaldehyde) Ethanal: CH3CHO (common name: acetaldehyde)

20 Ketones Ketone: carbonyl with two hydrocarbon groups attached Abbreviated –CO– Named with -one suffix on stem name, number indication position of carbonyl Propanone: CH3COCH3 (common name: acetone) 2-butanone: CH3COCH2CH3 (common name: methyl ethyl ketone)

21 Carboxylic acids Carboxylic acids contain a carboxyl group, –COOH Named like aldehydes, but with ‘-oic acid’ as suffix Many have common names CH3COOH: ethanoic acid - vinegar (common name: acetic acid) CH3(CH2)2COOH: butanoic acid - rancid dairy (common name: butyric acid)

22 Esters Ester: RCOOR’ Formed by reaction of alcohol with carboxylic acid Ex. Ethanol + Acetic acid  Ethyl acetate Pleasant, fragrant smells Many familiar fruit smells are esters

23 Nitrogen-containing functional groups
Amine: RnNH3-n Generally sharp- or strong-smelling Ammonia: NH3 Triethylamine (CH3CH2)3N smells like dead fish

24 Amides Amides: RCONH2 or RCONHR’ Formed by reaction of amine with carboxylic acid, similar to ester formation

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