2Organic ChemistryThe study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties.The vast majority of organic compounds contain chains or rings of carbon atoms.
3Organic & Inorganic Compounds Originally the distinction between inorganic and organic substances was based on whether or not they were produced by living systems.In 1828, German chemist Friedrich Wohler prepared urea from the inorganic salt ammonium cyanate by simple heating:heatNH4OCN ---> NH2CONH2
4Hydrocarbons . . . compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen. Saturated: carbon-carbon bonds are all single - alkanes [CnH2n+2]
14Rules for Naming Alkanes 1. For alkanes beyond butane, add -ane to the Greek root for the number of carbons.C-C-C-C-C-C = hexane2. Alkyl substituents: drop the -ane and add -yl.-C2H5 is ethyl
15Rules for Naming Alkanes 3. Positions of substituent groups are specified by numbering the longest chain sequentially.CC-C-C-C-C-C3-methylhexane4. Location and name are followed by root alkane name. Substituents in alphabetical order and use di-, tri-, etc.See Sample Exercise 22.2 on pages
30Aromatic Hydrocarbons A special class of cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons.+ Cl2+ HClbenzeneChlorobenzene
31Aromatic Hydrocarbons phenyl groupOrtho (o-) -- two adjacent substituents.meta (m-) -- two substituents with onecarbon between them.para (p-) -- two substituents opposite each other.
32Refinery ProcessesCracking: large molecules broken down to smaller ones by breaking carbon-carbon bonds.Pyrolysis (thermal cracking): The process that produces cracking at high temperatures.Catalytic Cracking: Cracking at lower temperatures.Catalytic reforming: Alkanes and cycloalkanes converted to aromatic compounds.
33The Common Functional Groups Class General FormulaHalohydrocarbons RXAlcohols ROHEthers RORAldehydes
34The Common Functional Groups Class General FormulaKetonesCarboxylic AcidsEstersAmines RNH2Amides R-C=ONH2
37Aldehydes & Ketones contain the carbonyl group ( C=O ). In ketones the carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms -- CH3C=OCH3.In aldehydes the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen atom -- HCHO.
38Carboxylic Acids & Esters Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl groupO(-C-OH).Esters contain the -C-O- group.
39Amines & Ethers Amines contain -NH2 group. If one hydrogen is removed and replaced with a hydrocarbon group, it is a primary amine.If two hydrogen are replaced, it is a secondary amine.If all three hydrogens are replaced, it is a tertiary amine.Ethers contain the -O- group.
40Polymers. . . are large, usually chainlike molecules that are built from small molecules called monomers.Monomer PolymerEthylene PolyethyleneVinyl chloride Polyvinyl chlorideTetrafluoroethylene Teflon
41Types of Polymerization Addition Polymerization: monomers “add together” to form the polymer, with no other products. (Teflon)Condensation Polymerization: A small molecule, such as water, is formed for each extension of the polymer chain. (Nylon)