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TOPIC 11 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (orgo). What is organic chemistry?  Organic chemistry is the study of carbon and its compounds  Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds.

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Presentation on theme: "TOPIC 11 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (orgo). What is organic chemistry?  Organic chemistry is the study of carbon and its compounds  Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds."— Presentation transcript:

1 TOPIC 11 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (orgo)

2 What is organic chemistry?  Organic chemistry is the study of carbon and its compounds  Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds (single, double or triple) (tetrahedral)  Hydrocarbon – contains only H and C atoms (TABLE Q)

3 1. Nonpolar or weakly polar (like dissolves like) - Low mp & bp 2. millions of organic compounds most are biological processes 3. Nonelectrolytes 4. Reaction rates slow 5. Insoluble & immiscible in water PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

4 HYDROCARBONS Aliphatic (straight chain)Aromatic (closed chain) SATURATED Alkane (single) C-C C n H 2n+2 -ane suffix UNSATURATED Alkyne (triple) C-C C n H 2n-2 -yne suffix Alkene (double) C=C C n H 2n -ene suffix Benzene C 6 H 6 C n H 2n-6 HOMOLOGOUS SERIES (for each additional carbon atom there will be 2 additional H atoms – TABLE Q

5 How can we name hydrocarbons? - IUPAC Names of organic molecules are designed to describe a molecule in terms of: 1. How many C atoms are in the longest continuous chain – get prefix from Table P 2. What is attached to the longest continuous chain? (double or triple bond, functional group, branching) Molecular formula: CH 4 Structural Formula -

6 DO NOW Review Book pg. 197 #1-6 AIM: HOW CAN WE NAME HYDROCARBONS?

7 SATURATED – ALL SINGLE BONDS Molecular Formula NameStructural FormulaBP CH 4

8 UNSATURATED – DOUBLE BOND Molecular Formula NameStructural Formula C2H4C2H4

9 UNSATURATED – TRIPLE BOND Molecular Formula NameStructural Formula C2H2C2H2

10 DO NOW: Review Book pg. 198 # AIM: HOW CAN WE NAME SUBSTITUTED HYDROCARBONS?

11 WHAT IS A SUBSTITUTED HYDROCARBON?  Hydrocarbons can branch off in the middle (alkyl group) or have atoms other than H bonded to C  Common ones are halo carbons or alkyl halide

12 HOW CAN WE NAME ORGANIC HYDROCARBON?- IUAP 1. Find longest continuous C chain (parent chain) and name it using Table P 2. Add name of any attached side groups - Organic side groups (alkyl groups) – alkanes with one less H (use prefix from table P and change ane – yl - Halide change ending to –o - cholro, bromo etc.

13 HOW CAN WE NAME ORGANIC HYDROCARBON?- IUAP 3. 4 or more C in a chain indicate which C atom the side group is attached to - count # of C from the end that give you the lowest possible #’s 4. If more than 1 of the same type of group in the chain, indicate which C each group is attached to and how many groups are contained (di, tri, etc.)

14 HOW CAN WE NAME ORGANIC HYDROCARBON?- IUAP PRACTICE

15 DO NOW: Take out the following assignments: - Review Book pg. 200 # Review Packet AIM: What are aromatic compounds?

16 WHAT IS AN AROMATIC HYDROCARBON? Cyclic hydrocarbons that possess a bonding phenomena called RESONANCE Double bonds don’t break because they are not stations (oscillate or vibrate moving rapidly)

17 WHAT IS AN AROMATIC HYDROCARBON? BENZENE is the basis of most aromatic compounds C 6 H 6 - Alternating double bond - H can be replaced

18 WHAT IS A COLLAPSED FORMULA? Condensed way to represent a structural formula as a molecular formula

19 AIM: What are functional groups and how do we recognize them? Do Now: Review Book pg. 200 #

20 Functional Groups – TABLE R 1.HALIDE – hydrocarbon containing a halogen (F, Cl, Br, or I) 2. ALCOHOLS – 1 or more H is replaced with -OH  To name: (not hydroxide!!!) 1. Drop “e” from parent compound add –ol 2. More than 1 hydroxyl – indicate # of C each is attached to and adjust name to reflect # of hydroxyls

21 Functional Groups – TABLE R 2. Alcohols (OH) End in - ol Monohydroxy 1 - OH dihydroxy 2 - OH Trihydroxy 3 - OH

22 Functional Groups – TABLE R 2. Alcohol: MONOhydroxy primary secondary Tertiary Propanol2-butanol2-methyl 2- butanol Box the C that is attached to the OH – how many other C atoms are attached to it

23 Functional Groups – TABLE R ALCOHOL DIHYDROXY 1,2 – ethanediol TRIHYDROXY 1,2,3 - propanetriol

24 Functional Groups – TABLE R 3.Organic acids  COOH drawn R- (attached hydrocarbon chain) - Suffix – oic acid - All primary carbons - H on end dissociates in water Ex) Draw the structures of the following 1.methanoic acid (formic acid) 2.Ethanoic acid (acetic acid)

25 Functional Groups – TABLE R 4. Aldehydes -Parent name suffix –al (carbonyl group on primary carbon Ex) Draw the following 1.Methanal (formaldehyde) 2.Ethanal (acetaldehyde)

26 Functional Groups – TABLE R 5.Ketones - Secondary from of aldehyde -Secondary carbonyl group -Parent name suffix – one -Indicate positioning of carbonyl group on lowest # carbon Ex) Draw the following 1.2-Propanone (acetone)

27 Functional Groups – TABLE R 6. Ester -Parent name suffix - oate -Formed by carboxyl group surrounded by 2 alkyl groups -Odors and flavors of plants, fruits & flowers -Can be synthesized to make artificial flavors and fragrances Ex) Draw the following 1. Methyl butanoate

28 Functional Groups – TABLE R 7. Amine -Formed by a N atom with 3 attached R groups -Suffix –amine -Use # in front of name to indicate position of amine (NH 2 ) group Ex) Draw the following 1. 1-butamine

29 Functional Groups – TABLE R 8. Amide -Primary C -Suffix –amide Ex) Draw the following 1.1- butamide

30 Functional Groups – TABLE R 9. Ether Ex) Draw the following: 1. Methyl propyl ether

31 ORGANIC REACTIONS COMBUSTION a. In the presence of excess O 2 a hydrocarbon produces CO 2 & H 2 O b. In limited O 2 hydrocarbon will produce CO and H 2 O Examples: SUBSTITUTION a. Involves a saturated hydrocarbon b. One of more H gets replaced (substituted) by another atom or group (hint: compare the number of H on the reactant and product side Examples:

32 ORGANIC REACTIONS ADDITION a. Involves an unsaturated hydrocarbon Hint: look for 2 reactants and one product Example: ESTERIFICATION a. An organic acid and an alcohol makes an ester and H 2 O b. Should recognize the acid group and the hydroxyl group in the reactants Hint: Table R to recognize the ester in the products Example: Review Book pg. 207 fig copy

33 ORGANIC REACTIONS SAPONIFICATION a. A fat reacts with a base to produce an alcohol (look for glycerol) and soap Example: Copy from Review book pg. 207 fig FERMENTATION Glucose yields ethanol and CO 2 Example:

34 ORGANIC REACTIONS POLYMERIZATION: An unsaturated hydrocarbon called a monomer (one unit), bonds itself in long chains creating a polymer(many units) ADDITION Several monomers combine to make the polymer nC 2 H 2  (C 2 H 2 ) n CONDENSATION Creation of polymer plus water as a product

35 Topic 11 Test Tomorrow! Review  Finish Review Book pg  Copy topics from board when finished


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