facts What to know? Drawing, naming, and identifying hydrocarbons Halogenated hydrocarbons types branched Halogenated hydrocarbons
reforming - process of extracting hydrogen from fossil fuels today, this is the principal and least expensive method of producing hydrogen unfortunately, reforming emits pollutants and consumes non-renewable fuels most commonly used are: Methane Methanol Gasoline Diesel Ammonia
almost all hydrocarbon products are produced from petroleum or crude oil extracted from the earth origin of petroleum is believed to be from the anaerobic decomposition of marine plankton and algae crude oil is a variable mixture of many hydrocarbons and other chemicals. (Separation is achieved with a cracking plant) Propane gas can be liquefied under pressure and stored in steel tanks and bottles
This makes it economical to manufacture propane and compress it into a liquid for shipping Butane can be maintained as a liquid at even lower pressures and can be safely held in plastic butane lighters Heat energy is released when hydrocarbons "burn"
when the chain is between 5 and 9 carbons, the hydrocarbon is gasoline about a 12 carbons and it is diesel & 20 carbons is motor oil a chain of hundreds to thousands of carbon and hydrogen make plastic
By combining oxygen with carbon and hydrogen, we can make any kind of alcohol Ethanol is drinking alcohol (also called grain alcohol) Methanol is also called wood alcohol Three carbon alcohol is called propanol If the alcohol group (OH) is on the middle carbon, it's called isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol)
dehydrated means loss of water hydrated means to add water. Carbohydrates(aka “CARBS”)- compounds that use carbon, oxygen, & hydrogen
contains 2 elements: hydrogen & carbon HYDROCARBON- root word that indicates the # of carbons present suffix indicates which type of bond is present names are based on a root word & suffix
1) alkanes - hydrocarbons with single bonds 3) alkynes - hydrocarbons with triple bonds 2) alkenes - hydrocarbons with double bonds
has 6 electrons CARBON ALWAYS NEEDS 4 bonds oxidation #4 has 1 electrons HYDROGEN ALWAYS NEEDS 1 bond oxidation #1
root words # of carbons meth1 eth2 pro3 but4 pent5 root words # of carbons hex6 hept7 oct8 non9 dec10
suffixKind of bondsymbol anesingle I enedouble II ynetriple III
1. ethane practice drawing & include chemical formula: 2. ethene 3. propyne 1. ethane C2H6C2H6 2. ethene 3. propyne C2H4C2H4 C3H4C3H4
# of carbons Name of base hydrocarbon Name if it is “branched” 1methanemethyl 2ethaneethyl 3propanepropyl The # of hydrocarbons in the branch follows the same naming rules as basic hydrocarbons branch name usually ends in “yl” INFO:
1 st draw the amount of carbons given in the root word 2 nd draw the # of bonds indicated in the suffix 3 rd add the branch where indicated 3ethyl pentane All single bonds Eth=2 2 carbon chain formula: C 7 H 16 4 th add hydrogen to all of the available bonding areas 5 carbons 2 carbon chain will go on the 3 rd carbon of the main hydrocarbon
Pentane – carbons are numbered Always numbered from left to right
Uses prefix when several different halogens are to be used prefix# of halogens di2 tri3 tetra4 penta5 Use the #’s in front to indicate which carbon the sub will go on
EX: sugar, starch, cellulose (wood fiber), and glycogen The small black granules (dots) are glycogen Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is the same as the starch in plants. Glycogen is synthesized(made) and stored mainly in the liver and the muscles
you can substitution of halogens with alkanes in a substitution reaction, one atom of hydrogen is replaced by one atom of a halogen. this type of reaction is called a halogenation. the halogenation of alkanes occurs in the presence of light, making it a photochemical reaction. EX: methane (C2H4) reacts with chlorine (which occurs as a two-atom molecule Cl2) in the presence of light to produce methyl chloride, CH3Cl, and hydrogen chloride (HCl)
These compounds can be differentiated according to various criteria, including: 1. The type of halogen, for example fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-. 2. The type of carbon chain: open, closed, aromatic, saturated, unsaturated. 3. The number of atoms in the halogen: mono-, di- and poly halogen compounds.
The name of the compound is based on the number of carbon atoms present where the substitution of a halogen for a hydrogen atom has taken place. Before the name of the hydrocarbon the names of the substitued halogens are given, in alphabetical order if possible. Each carbon atom is assigned a number so as to place the substituted halogen at as low a number as possible. Then the number of the carbon which has been substituted is placed before the halogen prefix.
For example: Fluorine is the first of the halogen group means that it is able to substitute for all of the other halogens in a chemical bond. hydrocarbons containing fluorine are very stable, non- flammable, and are not poisonous. they are used as an ingredient in aerosol sprays or as the refrigerant liquid in refrigerators, and as a solvent. Their use has become less popular in recent years because of the damage they do in the atmosphere to the ozone layer.