Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Organic Chemistry New Section in Table of Contents.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry New Section in Table of Contents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Chemistry New Section in Table of Contents

2 Organic Chemistry  KC 1: Organic chemistry is the study of carbon containing compounds - hydrocarbons  Organic chemistry studies the chemistry of living things  Carbon containing compounds are obtained from petroleum, wood, plants, etc.  KC 1: Organic chemistry is the study of carbon containing compounds - hydrocarbons  Organic chemistry studies the chemistry of living things  Carbon containing compounds are obtained from petroleum, wood, plants, etc.

3 KC 2: General Characteristics  Mostly non-polar covalent molecules; no ions  There are some examples of polar organic compounds  Mostly insoluble in water  Non-electrolytes  Low melting points  Mostly non-polar covalent molecules; no ions  There are some examples of polar organic compounds  Mostly insoluble in water  Non-electrolytes  Low melting points

4 What makes carbon so special?  Using Lewis dot structures, there are several arrangements for the valence electrons around carbon: CCCC 4 single bonds 2 single bonds & 1 double bond 2 double bonds 1 single Bond & 1 triple bond Case 1 Case 2Case 3Case 4

5 What makes carbon so special?  Case #1 - atoms tend to bond in a tetrahedral fashion around carbon. If they are identical atoms the molecule is nonpolar.  Case #2 - atoms tend to bond in a trigonal planar fashion around carbon. These molecules tend to be polar.  Case #3 - atoms tend to bond in a linear fashion around the carbon. If the bonding atoms are identical the molecule will be nonpolar.  Case #4 - atoms tend to bond in a linear fashion around the carbon. These molecules tend to be polar.  Case #1 - atoms tend to bond in a tetrahedral fashion around carbon. If they are identical atoms the molecule is nonpolar.  Case #2 - atoms tend to bond in a trigonal planar fashion around carbon. These molecules tend to be polar.  Case #3 - atoms tend to bond in a linear fashion around the carbon. If the bonding atoms are identical the molecule will be nonpolar.  Case #4 - atoms tend to bond in a linear fashion around the carbon. These molecules tend to be polar.

6 Bonding  2 carbon atoms form a covalent bond by sharing electrons  KC 3: The covalent bond can be classified as saturated or unsaturated:  Saturated – contains carbon and hydrogen linked by single bonds  Unsaturated – hydrocarbon that has available valence bonds, usually from double or triple bonds with carbon  2 carbon atoms form a covalent bond by sharing electrons  KC 3: The covalent bond can be classified as saturated or unsaturated:  Saturated – contains carbon and hydrogen linked by single bonds  Unsaturated – hydrocarbon that has available valence bonds, usually from double or triple bonds with carbon

7 Bonding -----C---C Saturated C==C Unsaturated ---C≡≡C--- Unsaturated

8 Bonding  Each carbon chain has carbon in the middle and hydrogen around the outside  Draw the Lewis structure for C 4 H 10 :  Each carbon chain has carbon in the middle and hydrogen around the outside  Draw the Lewis structure for C 4 H 10 :

9 Bonding  KC 4: Isomer – one of two or more compounds that have the same chemical composition but different structures  Isomers have similar physical and chemical properties  As the number of molecules in an atom increase, the number of isomers increases  KC 4: Isomer – one of two or more compounds that have the same chemical composition but different structures  Isomers have similar physical and chemical properties  As the number of molecules in an atom increase, the number of isomers increases

10 Drawing Hydrocarbons  KC 5: Hydrocarbons can be represented by line- bond drawings where hydrogen is assumed to be present around each carbon

11

12 BR – draw the line-bond structure CC C C C H H H H H H H OH O

13 KC 6: Types of Hydrocarbons  Alkanes – characterized by a straight or branched carbon chain that contains only single bonds  Name ends in “ane” (C n H 2n+2 )  Alkenes – a hydrocarbon that contains one or more double bonds  Name ends in “ene” (C n H 2n )  Alkynes – hydrocarbon that contains one or more triple bonds  Name ends in “yne” (C n H 2n-2 )  Alkanes – characterized by a straight or branched carbon chain that contains only single bonds  Name ends in “ane” (C n H 2n+2 )  Alkenes – a hydrocarbon that contains one or more double bonds  Name ends in “ene” (C n H 2n )  Alkynes – hydrocarbon that contains one or more triple bonds  Name ends in “yne” (C n H 2n-2 )

14 Types of Hydrocarbons Ethane Ethene Ethyne

15 Naming Hydrocarbons  KC 7: naming straight-chain alkanes Number of Carbon AtomsPrefix 1Meth- 2Eth 3Prop- 4But- 5Pent- 6Hex- 7Hept- 8Oct- 9Non- 10Dec-

16 Naming Hydrocarbons  KC 8: When naming long-chain alkenes or alkynes, the position of the double or triple bond must be included  KC 9: The first carbon atom with the double or triple bond must have the lowest number  KC 10: Example -  KC 8: When naming long-chain alkenes or alkynes, the position of the double or triple bond must be included  KC 9: The first carbon atom with the double or triple bond must have the lowest number  KC 10: Example -

17 Naming Hydrocarbons  KC 11: When there are multiple double or triple bonds, prefixes are included in front of the –ene or –yne. Both positions of the bond must be included in the name.  2 = di  3 = tri  KC 11: When there are multiple double or triple bonds, prefixes are included in front of the –ene or –yne. Both positions of the bond must be included in the name.  2 = di  3 = tri

18 Naming Hydrocarbons  KC 12: Compounds with branched chains, root name is that of the longest continuous carbon chain  KC 13: Branched chains are called substituents  KC 12: Compounds with branched chains, root name is that of the longest continuous carbon chain  KC 13: Branched chains are called substituents

19

20 Naming Hydrocarbons 1.Locate the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms; this chain determines the parent name for the alkane 2.Number the longest chain beginning with the end of the chain nearer the substituent 3.Use the numbers obtained to designate the location of the substituent group 4.When 2 or more substituents are present, give each a number corresponding to its location on the longest chain 1.Locate the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms; this chain determines the parent name for the alkane 2.Number the longest chain beginning with the end of the chain nearer the substituent 3.Use the numbers obtained to designate the location of the substituent group 4.When 2 or more substituents are present, give each a number corresponding to its location on the longest chain

21 Naming Hydrocarbons  When halogens are present, their numbered location must be included in the name and ending changed to “o”  Chloro-  Fluoro-  Bromo-  When halogens are present, their numbered location must be included in the name and ending changed to “o”  Chloro-  Fluoro-  Bromo-

22

23 KC 14: Functional Groups  Alcohol: R-OH, name ends in –ol  Ketone: R-CO-R’, name ends in -one  Aldehyde: R-CHO, name ends in -al  Carboxylic Acid: R-COOH, name ends in –oic acid  Alcohol: R-OH, name ends in –ol  Ketone: R-CO-R’, name ends in -one  Aldehyde: R-CHO, name ends in -al  Carboxylic Acid: R-COOH, name ends in –oic acid

24 Functional Groups


Download ppt "Organic Chemistry New Section in Table of Contents."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google