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>>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Hydrocarbon: Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne Created by: Sarina Hanifah (0905632) ORGANIC COMPOUND.

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Presentation on theme: ">>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Hydrocarbon: Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne Created by: Sarina Hanifah (0905632) ORGANIC COMPOUND."— Presentation transcript:

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2 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Hydrocarbon: Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne Created by: Sarina Hanifah ( ) ORGANIC COMPOUND

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13 I N T R O

14 Hi guyysss, my name is Dora. Today, i’ll be your guide to know more about hydrocarbon, from the definition till the function in our daily life. Oh ya, don’t need to be hesitate to ask your teacher if you find something you can’t understand

15 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Why we have to learn about organic compounds??

16 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Cause every time we use organic compound especially what we are eating, what we wear, what we polish, and many others like what we use when travelling either by bus, train, aeroplane and ships.

17 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Did you know? the cake that i’ve eaten is made of organic compound. It’s called wheat. It contains lots of energy’s source from organic compound!! Amazing, right?

18 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> What is hydrocarbon??

19 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Hydrocarbons is organic compounds that only contain hydrogen and carbons.

20 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Water forms droplets on a thin film of alkane wax on the skin of the apple.

21 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Biogas, which can come from animal manure is mostly composed of the alkane called methane.

22 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Solid long-chain alkanes form a firm layer of wax called the cuticle, over areas of the plant exposed to the air

23 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Petroleum Jelly is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25)

24 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Liquefied Petroleum Gas is composed mainly of propane and butane.

25 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Gas Lighters use butane

26 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Aerosol Sprays use propane and butane as propellants

27 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> M A T T R E

28 Alkane Alkene Alkyne

29 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> MIND MAP

30 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Hydrocarbons Large family of organic compounds Composed of only carbon and hydrogen Saturated hydrocarbons Alkanes Unsaturated hydrocarbons Alkenes, Alkynes C - C C = CC

31 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Alkane

32 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Definition of Alkane Alkane is saturated hydrocarbon which has a covalent bond between the C atom (C-C). As a saturated hydrocarbon, alkane has maximum amount of hydrogen. The general formula of alkane is: C n H 2n+2

33 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Video

34 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Naming of Alkane

35 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Line-angle Formula CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 - CH 3 Propane Butane Pentane CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 - CH 3 CH 3 -CH 2 - CH 3

36 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Give the name of: CH 3  CH 3 ─CH─CH 2 ─CH 3 STEP 1 Longest chain is butane. STEP 2 Number chain. CH 3 | CH 3 ─CH─CH 2 ─CH Note : When you give the number of the chain, please give the number starting with the chain that has the lowest number of substituent. STEP 3 Locate substituents and name. 2-Methylbutane

37 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> In the IUPAC system: Removing a H from an alkane is called alkyl group. -ane -yl Naming Substituents -OHHydroxyl -NO 2 Nitro

38 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Physical properties of alkane Non polar Insoluble in water. Lower density than water. Low boiling and melting points. Gases with 1-4 carbon atoms. (methane, propane, butane) Liquids with 5-17 carbon atoms. (kerosene, diesel, and jet fuels) Solids with 18 or more carbon atoms.

39 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Chemical reactions of Alkanes 1- Combustion: Alkanes react with oxygen. CO 2, H 2 O, and energy are produced. Alkane + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + heat CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O + energy (perfect combustion) CH 4 + 3/2 O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O + energy (imperfect combustion)

40 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 2- Halogenation: Alkanes react with Halogens. CH 4 + Cl 2 CH 3 Cl + HCl Heat or light Chemical reactions of Alkanes CH 3 Cl+ Cl 2 CH 2 Cl 2 + HCl CH 2 Cl 2 + Cl 2 CHCl 3 + HCl Heat or light Chloromethane Dichloromethane Trichloromethane

41 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Constitutional Isomers Have the same molecular formula. Have different atom arrangements (different structural formula). CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Butane CH 3 CHCH 3 2-Methylpropane CH 3 C 4 H 10

42 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Natural gas –90 to 95 percent methane. –5 to 10 percent ethane, and –a mixture of other low-boiling alkanes, chiefly propane, butane, and 2-methylpropane. Petroleum –A thick liquid mixture of thousands of compounds, most of them hydrocarbons, formed from the decomposition of marine plants and animals. Sources of Alkanes

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44 Uses of Alkane The gasoline that composed of liquid alkane which has high volatility

45 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Alkene and Alkyne

46 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Alkene is unsaturated hydrocarbon because the amount of atom H isn’t reach the maximum value. Alkene has two covalents bond between the C atom (C=C) The general formula of alkene is: Definition of Alkene C n H 2n

47 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Definition of Alkyne Alkyne is unsaturated hydrocarbon because the amount of atom H isn’t reach the maximum value. Alkyne has three covalents bond between the C atom (C=C) The general formula of alkyne is: C n H 2n-2

48 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Give the location for double and triple bond

49 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Using the IUPAC alkane names: Alkene names change the end to -ene. Alkyne names change the end to -yne Naming Alkenes & Alkynes

50 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Note: Give the lowest chain number to the chain that has the nearest location to the double bond (alkene) or triple bond (alkyne)

51 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> CH 2 = CH ─ CH 2 ─ CH 3 1-Butene CH 3 ─ CH=CH─ CH 3 2-Butene CH 3 | CH 3 ─ CH=C─CH 3 2-Methyl-2-butene Naming Alkenes & Alkynes

52 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> CH 3 ─ CH 2 ─ C  C ─ CH 3 2-Pentyne CH 3 CH 3 ─ CH 2 ─ C=CH ─ CH 3 3-Methyl-2 pentyne Naming Alkenes & Alkynes

53 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Cis & Trans Stereoisomers C = C H H CH 3 H3CH3C C = C H H CH 3 H3CH3C cis-2-Butenetrans-2-Butene The same molecular formula and the same connectivity of their atoms but a different arrangement of their atoms in space. C4H8C4H8 C4H8C4H8

54 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Physical Properties of Alkene & alkyne Non polar Insoluble in water Lower density than water

55 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Chemical Reaction of Alkene 1.Halogenation CH 2 =CH 2 + Cl 2  CH 2 Cl – CH 2 Cl ethene (1,2 dichloroethana) 2. Hydrogenation CH 2 =CH 2 + H 2  CH 3 – CH 3 ethene ethana

56 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Chemical Reaction of Alkene 3. Combustion CH 2 =CH 2 (g) + 3O 2 (g)  2CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g) 4. Hydration CH2=CH2(g) + H2O(l)  CH3-CH2-OH(l) etheneethanol

57 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Chemical Reaction of Alkyne 1.Polymerisation addition CH=CH + CH=CH  CH=C-CH=CH2 ethyne ethyne vynil ethyne 2. Substitution 2CH=CH + Na  2CH=CNa + H2

58 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Chemical Reaction of Alkyne 3. Combustion 2CH=CH(g) + 5O 2 (g)  4CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g)

59 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Uses of Alkene Ethene is basic substance of PVC industry. PVC is used for making water pipe, and rain coat.

60 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Uses of Alkene Ethene react with benzene to form polystirene. Polystirene is used as a basic substance of plastic such as plastic spoon, pipe, etc.

61 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Uses of alkyne Alkyne is used as a basic substance of another organic compound such as ethanal, ethanoic acid, vynil chloride, etc.

62 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> C G L O S I N

63 What do you think about hydrocarbon? There are so much influences in our daily life, right? But, did you know, if we use the hydrocarbon more than we need, it’ll contaminate our world. How it can be like that?

64 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Too much CO 2 cause of combustion of hydrocarbon in the atmosphere will causing the greenhouse effect. As a result, the temperature will be higher than usual.

65 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Most of plastic are hard to be broken, it needs long time to be recycled. So if we can’t control the uses of plastic, it’ll become the dangerous waste.

66 >>0 >>1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Guys, as you know the disadvantages of hydrocarbon, please control the uses of hydrocarbon compound such as reducing the uses of the vehicle that use gasoline as a fuel or you can reuse the plastic as like as you want. So we have a better place to live in, Because this world is ours.

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