13Hi guyysss, my name is Dora Hi guyysss, my name is Dora. Today, i’ll be your guide to know more about hydrocarbon, from the definition till the function in our daily life. Oh ya, don’t need to be hesitate to ask your teacher if you find something you can’t understand
15Cause every time we use organic compound especially what we are eating , what we wear, what we polish, and many others like what we use when travelling either by bus, train, aeroplane and ships.
16Did you know. the cake that i’ve eaten is made of organic compound Did you know? the cake that i’ve eaten is made of organic compound. It’s called wheat. It contains lots of energy’s source from organic compound!! Amazing, right?
29Large family of organic compounds Composed of only carbon and hydrogen HydrocarbonsLarge family of organic compoundsComposed of only carbon and hydrogenSaturated hydrocarbonsAlkanesUnsaturated hydrocarbonsAlkenes, AlkynesC - CC = CC C
31Definition of Alkane CnH2n+2 Alkane is saturated hydrocarbon which has a covalent bond between the C atom (C-C). As a saturated hydrocarbon, alkane has maximum amount of hydrogen.The general formula of alkane is:CnH2n+2
35STEP 1 Longest chain is butane. STEP 2 Number chain. CH3 Give the name of: CH3CH3─CH─CH2─CH3STEP Longest chain is butane.STEP Number chain. CH3|Note : When you give the number of the chain, please give the number starting with the chain that has the lowest number of substituent.STEP 3 Locate substituents and name.2-Methylbutane
36Naming SubstituentsIn the IUPAC system:Removing a H from an alkane is called alkyl group.-ane yl-OH Hydroxyl-NO2 Nitro
37Physical properties of alkane Non polarInsoluble in water.Lower density than water.Low boiling and melting points.Gases with 1-4 carbon atoms.(methane, propane, butane)Liquids with 5-17 carbon atoms.(kerosene, diesel, and jet fuels)Solids with 18 or more carbon atoms.
38Chemical reactions of Alkanes 1- Combustion:Alkanes react with oxygen.CO2, H2O, and energy are produced.Alkane + O CO2 + H2O + heatCH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O + energy (perfect combustion)CH4 + 3/2 O CO2 + 2H2O + energy (imperfect combustion)
39Chemical reactions of Alkanes 2- Halogenation:Alkanes react with Halogens.CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HClChloromethaneHeat or lightDichloromethaneCH3Cl+ Cl2 CH2Cl2 + HClHeat or lightCH2Cl2+ Cl2 CHCl3 + HClTrichloromethaneHeat or light
40Constitutional Isomers Have the same molecular formula. Have different atom arrangements (different structural formula).CH3CH2CH2CH3ButaneC4H10CH32-MethylpropaneC4H10CH3CHCH3
41Sources of AlkanesNatural gas90 to 95 percent methane.5 to 10 percent ethane, anda mixture of other low-boiling alkanes, chiefly propane, butane, and 2-methylpropane.PetroleumA thick liquid mixture of thousands of compounds, most of them hydrocarbons, formed from the decomposition of marine plants and animals.
45Definition of Alkene CnH2n Alkene is unsaturated hydrocarbon because the amount of atom H isn’t reach the maximum value. Alkene has two covalents bond between the C atom (C=C)The general formula of alkene is:CnH2n
46Definition of Alkyne CnH2n-2 Alkyne is unsaturated hydrocarbon because the amount of atom H isn’t reach the maximum value. Alkyne has three covalents bond between the C atom (C=C)The general formula of alkyne is:CnH2n-2
52Cis & Trans Stereoisomers HHHCH3C = CC = CH3CCH3H3CHC4H8C4H8cis-2-Butenetrans-2-ButeneThe same molecular formula and the same connectivity of their atomsbut a different arrangement of their atoms in space.
53Physical Properties of Alkene & alkyne Non polarInsoluble in waterLower density than water
62What do you think about hydrocarbon What do you think about hydrocarbon? There are so much influences in our daily life, right? But, did you know, if we use the hydrocarbon more than we need, it’ll contaminate our world. How it can be like that?
63Did You Know?Too much CO2 cause of combustion of hydrocarbon in the atmosphere will causing the greenhouse effect. As a result, the temperature will be higher than usual.
64Did You Know?Most of plastic are hard to be broken, it needs long time to be recycled. So if we can’t control the uses of plastic, it’ll become the dangerous waste.
65Guys, as you know the disadvantages of hydrocarbon, please control the uses of hydrocarbon compound such as reducing the uses of the vehicle that use gasoline as a fuel or you can reuse the plastic as like as you want. So we have a better place to live in, Because this world is ours.