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Hydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons

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Presentation on theme: "Hydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Double and triple bonds between carbons Not every carbon has each of its 4 electrons bonded to 4 different atoms More chemically reactive than saturated compounds, or alkanes Unsaturated hydrocarbons include alkenes (double bonds) and alkynes (triple bonds)

2 Parent hydrocarbon prefixes
# Carbon atoms Example 1 meth- CH4 methane 2 eth- C2H6 ethane 3 prop- C3H8 propane 4 but- C4H butane 5 pent- C5H pentane 6 hex- C6H hexane 7 hept- C7H heptane 8 oct- C8H octane 9 non- C9H nonane 10 dec- C10H22 decane As attached groups: Functional group Group name -CH3 methyl -C2H5 ethyl -C3H7 propyl -C4H9 butyl -C5H11 pentyl

3 Naming Organic Compounds
Name the parent hydrocarbon: Use the LONGEST STRAIGHT chain of carbon atoms. Add the name of the alkyl groups attached to the chain. If more than one group is attached, use the proper numerical prefix to indicate how many groups are attached. (2=di, 3-tri,etc.) Assign numbers to the carbons in the parent chain. Assign so that attached groups are at the lowest number possible. Insert the numbers in front of the proper group. Separate position numbers from names with hyphens.

4 Example: Naming Organic Compounds
Name the parent hydrocarbon. CH3 – CH – CH2 – CH – CH – CH3 hexane CH3 CH3 CH3 Add the name of the alkyl groups attached to the chain. 3 methyl groups: trimethylhexane Assign numbers to the carbons in the parent chain. CH3 – CH – CH2 – CH – CH – CH3 4-5. Insert position numbers and add hyphens. 2,3,5-trimethylhexane

5 Name the following compounds
1. CH3 – CH – CH2 – CH2 – CH3 CH3 CH3 – CH – CH2 – CH2 – CH – CH | | CH CH3 3. CH3 – CH – CH2 – CH2 – CH3 CH2 2-methyl pentane #2: 2,5-dimethyl hexane #3: 3-methyl hexane

6 Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Single bond between carbons: -ane CnH2n+1 Double bond between carbons: -ene CnH2n Triple bond between carbons: -yne CnHn Examples: C H ethane C2H6 C H ethene C2H4 C H ethyne C2H2

7 Other Functional Groups
Compound Formula Example Alcohol R-OH hydroxyl group 1-propanol Alkyl Halide -X X = any halide 1,2-dibromopropane Ether R-O-R’ one oxygen bonded to 2 hydrocarbon groups diethyl ether CH3-CH2 –O--CH2--CH3 Aldehyde O || R-C-H Carbonyl group attached to end carbon Ethanal O CH3—C--H Ketone R-C-R’ Carbonyl group attached to a middle carbon 2-propanone O CH3—C-- CH3 Carboxylic Acid R-C-OH Carboxyl group ethanoic acid O CH3—C—OH Ester R-C-O-R’ Carboxyl group without the H methyl ethanoate O CH3—C—O-- CH3

8 Cyclic Compounds Cycloalkanes Aromatic compounds
Saturated carbons joined in a ring Example is cyclohexane, C6H12 Add cyclo- to beginning of name if the alkane is known to be arranged in a circle (CnH2n). No position number is needed if only one alkyl group is attached. Aromatic compounds Unsaturated: Contains 3 double bonds Example is benzene, C6H6 C-H H-C benzene 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene CH3CH2- -CH3

9 Addition Reactions Water adds to ethene: The double bond is broken and an H attaches to one carbon and the OH attaches to the other carbon. H H H H C C H-OH H-C-C-H H H H H Ethene can add to itself, breaking double bonds to attach to one molecule after another. A monomer is a small unit; when additional monomers are attached repeatedly, a long-chain polymer is formed.

10 Addition Polymers Polyethylene is a polymer made from the monomer ethene. Zip-lock bags are usually made from low-density polyethylene. Common polymer variations replace one of ethene’s hydrogens with another unit, such as a halogen atom (F or Cl), Cyanide (CN), or benzene (C6H6). Vinyl chloride polyvinyl chloride Acrylonitrile polyacrylnitrile Styrene polystyrene Atoms that compose the monomers determine the properties of the polymer.

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