Presentation on theme: "Hydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons Double and triple bonds between carbonsNot every carbon has each of its 4 electrons bonded to 4 different atomsMore chemically reactive than saturated compounds, or alkanesUnsaturated hydrocarbons include alkenes (double bonds) and alkynes (triple bonds)
3 Naming Organic Compounds Name the parent hydrocarbon: Use the LONGEST STRAIGHT chain of carbon atoms.Add the name of the alkyl groups attached to the chain. If more than one group is attached, use the proper numerical prefix to indicate how many groups are attached. (2=di, 3-tri,etc.)Assign numbers to the carbons in the parent chain. Assign so that attached groups are at the lowest number possible.Insert the numbers in front of the proper group.Separate position numbers from names with hyphens.
4 Example: Naming Organic Compounds Name the parent hydrocarbon.CH3 – CH – CH2 – CH – CH – CH3 hexaneCH3 CH3 CH3Add the name of the alkyl groups attached to the chain.3 methyl groups: trimethylhexaneAssign numbers to the carbons in the parent chain.CH3 – CH – CH2 – CH – CH – CH34-5. Insert position numbers and add hyphens.2,3,5-trimethylhexane
6 Unsaturated hydrocarbons Single bond between carbons: -ane CnH2n+1Double bond between carbons: -ene CnH2nTriple bond between carbons: -yne CnHnExamples:CHethaneC2H6CHetheneC2H4CHethyneC2H2
7 Other Functional Groups CompoundFormulaExampleAlcoholR-OHhydroxyl group1-propanolAlkyl Halide-XX = any halide1,2-dibromopropaneEtherR-O-R’one oxygen bonded to 2 hydrocarbon groupsdiethyl etherCH3-CH2 –O--CH2--CH3AldehydeO||R-C-HCarbonyl group attached to end carbonEthanal OCH3—C--HKetoneR-C-R’Carbonyl group attached to a middle carbon2-propanone OCH3—C-- CH3Carboxylic AcidR-C-OHCarboxyl groupethanoic acid OCH3—C—OHEsterR-C-O-R’Carboxyl group without the Hmethyl ethanoate OCH3—C—O-- CH3
8 Cyclic Compounds Cycloalkanes Aromatic compounds Saturated carbons joined in a ringExample is cyclohexane, C6H12Add cyclo- to beginning of name if the alkane is known to be arranged in a circle (CnH2n). No position number is needed if only one alkyl group is attached.Aromatic compoundsUnsaturated: Contains 3 double bondsExample is benzene, C6H6C-HH-Cbenzene1-ethyl-4-methylbenzeneCH3CH2--CH3
9 Addition ReactionsWater adds to ethene: The double bond is broken and an H attaches to one carbon and the OH attaches to the other carbon.H H H HC C H-OH H-C-C-HH H H HEthene can add to itself, breaking double bonds to attach to one molecule after another.A monomer is a small unit; when additional monomers are attached repeatedly, a long-chain polymer is formed.
10 Addition PolymersPolyethylene is a polymer made from the monomer ethene. Zip-lock bags are usually made from low-density polyethylene.Common polymer variations replace one of ethene’s hydrogens with another unit, such as a halogen atom (F or Cl), Cyanide (CN), or benzene (C6H6).Vinyl chloride polyvinyl chlorideAcrylonitrile polyacrylnitrileStyrene polystyreneAtoms that compose the monomers determine the properties of the polymer.