Presentation on theme: "Federalists vs. Republicans. Federalists – Advocates for a strong, central government – Increased stature in the world – George Washington, Alexander."— Presentation transcript:
Federalists vs. Republicans
Federalists – Advocates for a strong, central government – Increased stature in the world – George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams
George Washington’s Presidency Inaugurated April 30, 1789 in New York Served two terms as President. Read his biography here: –
Hamilton and the Federalists Although Washington was a Federalist, he tended to avoid involvement in political affairs. *Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Plan* – Government assumption of state debts, which would establish credit – Formation of a National Bank – provide loans, support currency, allow for deposits – Taxes Whiskey Tax Import Tariff
Enacting the Federalist Program There is a fear that smaller states, with little debt, would face increased taxes. Hamilton/Jefferson deal – Virginia agrees to finance financial plan if a new capital city is built outside the Potomac River. – New capital city becomes the basis for Washington D.C. – Hamilton’s Financial Plan is passed.
Republican Opposition Federalist vs. Republican – conflicting views of national government Republicans – Agrarian society, some manufacturing – Decentralized government – Mostly rural, South, West – Role in French Revolution?
Securing the Frontier Articles of Confederation failed to connect Western lands to the government. – Revolts in Massachusetts, Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee – 1794 – Whiskey Rebellion Western Pennsylvania Threaten Tax Collection Washington personally led a militia to end the rebellion.
Natives and the New Nation Northwest and Southwest – Natives continue to challenge colonists Ordinances of led to further conflicts between natives and colonists New Constitution fails to address concerns with Native Americans
Neutrality 1791 – Great Britain sends a minister to the United States 1793 – France vs. Great Britain – U.S. remains neutral “Genet Affair” – French minister, violated U.S. neutrality 1794 – Great Britain seizes American ships trading with the French in the West Indies
Jay’s Treaty Hamilton convinced Washington to send special commission to Great Britain. – John Jay – instructed to receive compensation, demand withdrawal, and work on forming a treaty. – Jay’s Treaty Settled conflict U.S. gains further control of Northwest Commercial relationship between Great Britain and the United States Public opinion is against the particulars of the treaty
Pinckney’s Treaty Spain grew concerned with conflict. Pinckney’s Treaty – 1795 – Granted U.S. navigation of the Mississippi to New Orleans – Fixed the Florida boundary – Spanish must prevent Native raids –
Downfall of the Federalists After Adams wins the 1796 election, the Federalist Party never wins another election. Election of 1796 – End of Washington’s two terms, he decides against running for a third term, thus setting a precedent that will remain until the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt. – Washington Farewell Address - – Adams (Federalist) vs. Jefferson (Republican) – Adams wins
Election of 1796 Major issues focused on support of Jay’s Treaty and a potential role in the French Revolution. Adams and the Federalists supported the Treaty, thus favoring the British. Jefferson and the Republicans were against the treaty, thus favoring the French. The majority of the campaigning took place in the newspapers, broad sides and other methods of the day. The supporters of these men actually campaigned for their favorites. Adams had won the election by only 3 votes and Thomas Jefferson, who finished second, automatically became vice-president. The election of 1796 had exposed an inherent flaw in the Electoral College System. The Electors voted on one ballot with two names on it. The candidate, who had the most votes, won the election. The candidate who had the second most votes became the vice president. This would not be changed until the passage of the 12 th amendment in 1804.
John Adams Read his bio here: –
Quasi-War with France French capture American ships – Adams appoints Charles Pickney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry to negotiate with the French – French demand money before negotiations begin – “XYZ” Affair Adams persuades Congress to cut off trade with the French, capture armed French troops. – – 1798 – U.S. Navy Created Align with the British – Treaty in 1800
Repression and Protest Signed into law by President John Adams in 1798, the Alien and Sedition Acts consisted of four laws passed by the Federalist-controlled Congress as America prepared for war with France. These acts increased the residency requirement for American citizenship from five to fourteen years, authorized the president to imprison or deport aliens considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States" and restricted speech critical of the government. These laws were designed to silence and weaken the Democratic-Republican Party. Negative reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts helped contribute to the Democratic-Republican victory in the 1800 elections. Congress repealed the Naturalization Act in 1802, while the other acts were allowed to expire.
Alien and Sedition Acts Read both documents at the following website. edact.asp edact.asp
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions December 24, 1798 – Virginia Resolution December 3, 1799 – Kentucky Resolution Governments are only allowed certain delegated powers. States had the right to “nullify”. Read both here: – ct.asp ct.asp
“Revolution” of 1800 Adams vs. Jefferson Jefferson ties with Aaron Burr – Congress must decide winner – Jefferson wins on the 36 th ballot – Adams – “Midnight” appointments Judiciary Act of 1801 – increased the number of federal judges Adams appoints Federalist judges to carry on the Federalist view of national government.
Republicans – Modest central government – Rural landowners – Thomas Jefferson
Multiple Choice Alexander Hamilton’s economic program was designed primarily to: A) prepare the United States for war in the event Britain failed to vacate its post in the Northwest B) provide a platform for the fledgling Federalist Party’s 1792 campaign C) establish the financial stability and credit of the new government D) ensure northern dominance over the southern states in order to abolish slavery E) win broad political support for his own candidacy for the presidency in 1792
Multiple Choice The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest were similar in that all involved a defense of A) freedom of the seas B) freedom of speech C) the institution of slavery D) states’ rights E) presidential power in foreign affairs