2Federalists Federalists Advocates for a strong, central government Increased stature in the worldGeorge Washington, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams
3George Washington’s Presidency Inaugurated April 30, 1789 in New YorkServed two terms as President.Read his biography here:
4Hamilton and the Federalists Although Washington was a Federalist, he tended to avoid involvement in political affairs.*Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Plan*Government assumption of state debts, which would establish creditFormation of a National Bank – provide loans, support currency, allow for depositsTaxesWhiskey TaxImport Tariff
5Enacting the Federalist Program There is a fear that smaller states, with little debt, would face increased taxes.Hamilton/Jefferson dealVirginia agrees to finance financial plan if a new capital city is built outside the Potomac River.New capital city becomes the basis for Washington D.C.Hamilton’s Financial Plan is passed.
6Republican Opposition Federalist vs. Republican – conflicting views of national governmentRepublicansAgrarian society, some manufacturingDecentralized governmentMostly rural, South, WestRole in French Revolution?
7Securing the FrontierArticles of Confederation failed to connect Western lands to the government.Revolts in Massachusetts, Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee1794 – Whiskey RebellionWestern PennsylvaniaThreaten Tax CollectionWashington personally led a militia to end the rebellion.
8Natives and the New Nation Northwest and Southwest – Natives continue to challenge colonistsOrdinances of led to further conflicts between natives and colonistsNew Constitution fails to address concerns with Native Americans
9Neutrality 1791 – Great Britain sends a minister to the United States 1793 – France vs. Great Britain – U.S. remains neutral“Genet Affair” – French minister, violated U.S. neutrality1794 – Great Britain seizes American ships trading with the French in the West Indies
10Jay’s TreatyHamilton convinced Washington to send special commission to Great Britain.John Jay – instructed to receive compensation, demand withdrawal, and work on forming a treaty.Jay’s TreatySettled conflictU.S. gains further control of NorthwestCommercial relationship between Great Britain and the United StatesPublic opinion is against the particulars of the treaty
11Pinckney’s Treaty Spain grew concerned with conflict. 1795Granted U.S. navigation of the Mississippi to New OrleansFixed the Florida boundarySpanish must prevent Native raids
12Downfall of the Federalists After Adams wins the 1796 election, the Federalist Party never wins another election.Election of 1796End of Washington’s two terms, he decides against running for a third term, thus setting a precedent that will remain until the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt.Washington Farewell Address -Adams (Federalist) vs. Jefferson (Republican)Adams wins
13Election of 1796Major issues focused on support of Jay’s Treaty and a potential role in the French Revolution. Adams and the Federalists supported the Treaty, thus favoring the British. Jefferson and the Republicans were against the treaty, thus favoring the French.The majority of the campaigning took place in the newspapers, broad sides and other methods of the day. The supporters of these men actually campaigned for their favorites. Adams had won the election by only 3 votes and Thomas Jefferson, who finished second, automatically became vice-president.The election of 1796 had exposed an inherent flaw in the Electoral College System. The Electors voted on one ballot with two names on it. The candidate, who had the most votes, won the election. The candidate who had the second most votes became the vice president.This would not be changed until the passage of the 12th amendment in 1804.
15Quasi-War with France French capture American ships Adams appoints Charles Pickney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry to negotiate with the FrenchFrench demand money before negotiations begin“XYZ” Affair Adams persuades Congress to cut off trade with the French, capture armed French troops.1798 – U.S. Navy Created Align with the BritishTreaty in 1800
16Repression and Protest Signed into law by President John Adams in 1798, the Alien and Sedition Acts consisted of four laws passed by the Federalist-controlled Congress as America prepared for war with France. These acts increased the residency requirement for American citizenship from five to fourteen years, authorized the president to imprison or deport aliens considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States" and restricted speech critical of the government. These laws were designed to silence and weaken the Democratic-Republican Party. Negative reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts helped contribute to the Democratic-Republican victory in the 1800 elections. Congress repealed the Naturalization Act in 1802, while the other acts were allowed to expire.
17Alien and Sedition Acts Read both documents at the following website.
18Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions December 24, 1798 – Virginia ResolutionDecember 3, 1799 – Kentucky ResolutionGovernments are only allowed certain delegated powers.States had the right to “nullify”.Read both here:
19“Revolution” of 1800 Adams vs. Jefferson Jefferson ties with Aaron BurrCongress must decide winnerJefferson wins on the 36th ballotAdams – “Midnight” appointmentsJudiciary Act of 1801 – increased the number of federal judgesAdams appoints Federalist judges to carry on the Federalist view of national government.
20Republicans Republicans Modest central government Rural landowners Thomas Jefferson
21Multiple ChoiceAlexander Hamilton’s economic program was designed primarily to:A) prepare the United States for war in the event Britain failed to vacate its post in the NorthwestB) provide a platform for the fledgling Federalist Party’s 1792 campaignC) establish the financial stability and credit of the new governmentD) ensure northern dominance over the southern states in order to abolish slaveryE) win broad political support for his own candidacy for the presidency in 1792
22Multiple ChoiceThe Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest were similar in that all involved a defense ofA) freedom of the seasB) freedom of speechC) the institution of slaveryD) states’ rightsE) presidential power in foreign affairs