Presentation on theme: "UNIT: CLASH OF BELIEFS, RECONSTRUCTION SSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. a. Compare and contrast."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT: CLASH OF BELIEFS, RECONSTRUCTION SSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction. b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (e.g., Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau. c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. d. Explain Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction. e. Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction f. Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and the subsequent compromise of 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction.
RECONSTRUCTION The unit concludes with a focus on the beliefs and ideals of political reconstruction of the South and the struggles of newly freed African-Americans.
RECONSTRUCTION Reconstruction is the era in the U.S. history from 1865 to 1877, when the U.S. focused on abolishing slavery, destroying all traces of the Confederacy, establishing the rights of Freedmen, the name used for freed slaves, and through three new constitutional amendments, strengthening the role of the federal governments and its courts.U.S. historyU.S.abolishing slaveryConfederacy
PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION 1. PLAN OF PRES. A. LINCOLN AND PRES. ANDREW JOHNSON (DISCUSSED IN 2 ND INAUGURAL ADDRESS) 2. URGED NO REVENGE ON THE S 3. ADMIT S BACK INTO UNION ASAP 4. REPUBLICANS IN CONGRESS WERE OUTRAGED, THOUGH, THAT NEW STATE GOVERNMENTS IN S WERE PASSING LAWS ALLOWING DISCRIMINATION AGAINST BLACKS, THE NEWLY FREED SLAVES.
RADICAL REPUBLICAN RECONSTRUCTION 1. OPPOSED TO PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION OF PRES. JOHNSON 2. CONGRESS FORCED STATES IN S. TO REAPPLY FOR ADMISSION TO UNION AND MAKE PROGRESS FOR RIGHTS OF BLACKS. 3. RESULT: CREATION OF GOVTS WITH BLACKS INVOLVED 4. MAJOR LEGISLATION WHICH BECAME LAWS IN USC TO PROTECT RIGHTS OF BLACKS 1) “CIVIL WAR AMENDMENTS” TO THE USC
CIVIL WAR AMENDMENTS 1. AMENDMENT 13 – ABOLISHED SLAVERY 2. AMENDMENT 14 – CITIZENSHIP FOR ALL PERSONS BORN IN USA (INCLUDING BLACKS) AND GUARANTEE OF RIGHT OF DUE PROCESS 3. AMENDMENT 15 – SUFFRAGE FOR ALL MALES AGE 21 AND OLDER
GAINS OF BLACK AMERICANS DURING RECONSTRUCTION 1. ESTABLISHED FREE SCHOOLS 2. STARTED NEWSPAPERS 3. SERVED IN PUBLIC OFFICE 4. ESTABLISHED NEW COLLEGES 1) MOREHOUSE, ATLANTA, 1867, FOR MINISTRY AND EDUCATION
MOREHOUSE COLLEGE Morehouse College is a private, all- male, historically black college located in Atlanta, Georgia. It is one of four remaining traditional men’s colleges in the United States.privateall- malehistorically blackAtlantaGeorgiaUnited States Located on a 61 acre (247,000 m²) campus, the college has an enrollment of 3,000 students. The student-faculty ratio of the campus is 16:1 and 100% of the school's tenure- track faculty hold terminal degrees. Along with Clark Atlanta University, Interdenominational Theological Center, Morehouse School of Medicine and nearby women's college Spelman College, Morehouse is part of the Atlanta University Center.Clark Atlanta University Interdenominational Theological CenterMorehouse School of Medicine Spelman CollegeAtlanta University Center WILLIAM JEFFERSON WHITE RICHARD C. COULTER On May 16, 2008, Joshua Packwood became the first white valedictorian to graduate in the school's 141-year history.Joshua Packwood
GAINS, CONTINUED 5. CONGRESS ESTABLISHED THE FREEDMEN’S BUREAU TO HELP BLACKS MAKE TRANSITION TO FREEDOM. 6. BLACKS HAD FEW SKILLS. MOST CONTINUED TO FARM BY SHARECROPPING OR TENANT FARMING.
FARMING 1) Sharecropping is a system of agriculture or agricultural production in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land 2) Tenant farming is farming by one who resides on and farms land owned by a landlord. landlord
THE MAJOR EVENT OF RECONSTRUCTION IMPEACHMENT OF PRES. ANDREW JOHNSON 1. IMPEACHMENT-FORMAL CHARGE OF MISCONDUCT IN OFFICE (NOT REMOVAL FROM OFFICE) 2. Johnson was impeached for the charge of High Crimes and Misdemeanors on February 24, 1868, of which one of the articles of impeachment was violating the Tenure of Office Act. (REMOVED A CABINET OFFICIAL WITHOUT CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL)impeachedHigh Crimes and MisdemeanorsTenure of Office Act 3. RADICAL REPUBLICANS IMPEACHED JOHNSON BECAUSE HE IGNORED LAWS THEY HAD PASSED TO LIMIT PRESIDENT’S POWER. 4. THE LAWS HAD BEEN PASSED TO STOP JOHNSON FROM LIMITING THE RADICALS HOSTILE TREATMENT OF SOUTHERN STATES.
IMPEACHMENT TRIAL IN SENATE OF PRESIDENT ANDREW JOHNSON
The Situation A Harper's Weekly cartoon gives a humorous breakdown of "the situation". Secretary of War Edwin Stanton aims a cannon labeled "Congress" on the side at President Andrew Johnson and Lorenzo Thomas to show how Stanton was using congress to defeat the president and his unsuccessful replacement. He also holds a rammer marked "Tenure of Office Bill" and cannon balls on the floor are marked "Justice". Ulysses S. Grant and an unidentified man stand to Stanton's left.Harper's WeeklySecretary of WarEdwin Stanton PresidentAndrew Johnson Lorenzo ThomasUlysses S. Grant
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States (1865–69), succeeding to the Presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. He was the first U.S. President to be impeached. 17thPresident of the United Statesthe assassinationAbraham Lincoln U.S. President to be impeached
RECONSTRUCTION RESISTANCE TO RACIAL EQUALITY 1. FORMER SLAVE STATES IN S ENACTED BLACK CODES. 2. BLACK CODES RESTRICTED FREED BLACKS…DEPRIVED BLACKS OF RIGHTS, ESPECIALLY VOTING (SUFFRAGE.) 3. FORMATION OF KKK, KU KLUX, KLAN 4. CARPETBAGGERS-NORTHERNERS WHO HELPED BLACKS 5. SCALAWAGS-SOUTHERNERS WHO HELPED BLACKS AND CARPETBAGGERS
FINAL THOUGHTS, RECONSTRUCTION 1. MOST WHITE, SOUTHERNERS RESISTED RECONSTRUCTION. 2. RECONSTRUCTION ENDED WHEN FEDERAL TROOPS WERE WITHDRAWN FROM S IN 1877. 3. SOUTHERN WHITES REGAINED CONTROL OF STATE GOVTS. 4. UNLAWFUL SEGREGATION BEGAN.
THE END OF RECONSTRUCTION THE ELECTION OF 1876 THE COMPROMISE OF 1877
ELECTION OF 1876 The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed presidential elections in American history. Samuel J. Tilden of New York outpolled Ohio's Rutherford B. Hayes in the popular vote, and had 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165, with 20 votes uncounted. These 20 electoral votes were in dispute: in three states (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina), each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was declared illegal (as an "elected or appointed official") and replaced. The 20 disputed electoral votes were ultimately awarded to Hayes after a bitter legal and political battle, giving him the victory.presidential elections Samuel J. TildenRutherford B. Hayeselectoral votesFloridaLouisiana South CarolinaOregon
RUTHERFORD HAYES AND SAMUEL TILDEN, ELECION, 1876
COMPROMISE OF 1877 Many historians believe that an informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute: the Compromise of 1877. In return for Democrat acquiescence in Hayes' election, the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction. The Compromise effectively ceded power in the Southern states to the white supremacist "Redeemers" (who were Democrats). The Redeemers subsequently disfranchised African-Americans in the South and barred them from holding any political offices.Compromise of 1877 ReconstructionRedeemersdisfranchised
The Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election. Through it, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. Consequently, the incumbent President, Republican Ulysses Grant, removed the soldiers from Florida before Hayes as his successor removed the remaining troops in South Carolina and Louisiana. As soon as the troops left, many Republicans also left (or became Democrats) and the "Redeemer" Democrats took control.1876 U.S. Presidential electionRepublicanRutherford B. Hayes White HouseDemocratSamuel J. Tilden South CarolinaFloridaLouisianaUlysses GrantDemocratsRedeemer