Presentation on theme: "Nationalism: settler societies “Black Consciousness refers to the black man and to his situation... [he] is subjected to two forces in this country. He."— Presentation transcript:
Nationalism: settler societies “Black Consciousness refers to the black man and to his situation... [he] is subjected to two forces in this country. He is first oppressed by an external world...and we regard this as most important, the black man in himself has developed a certain state of alienation, he rejects himself, precisely because he attaches the meaning white to all that is good,.. He equates good with white. [Steve Biko, I write what I like, 1978, p. 100]
Case Study South Africa
South Africa Post WW II South Africa prospering: - Afrikaners (those of Dutch and German ancestry, settled in South Africa since late 17 th century) felt British (settlers date to early 19 th century) still dominated and controlled economy. - growing number of poor ‘white’ Afrikaners highlighted grievances.
South Africa In election of 1948, National Party came to power: - sought economic power for Afrikaners - strict segregation of the races – race meant not only blacks and whites, but Afrikaners and British, Coloureds Asians [see ‘National Party’s Colour Policy, 1948, “Additional Readings”]
South Africa While the rest of Africa moved towards independence, “Apartheid” created a new form of colonialism (similar to Rhodesia).
South Africa Three defining pieces of legislation: - Race Classification Act--Every citizen suspected of not being European was classified according to race. - Mixed Marriages Act--prohibited marriage between people of different races. - Group Areas Act--forced people of certain races into living in designated areas
South Africa First affected were those labeled Coloureds (mixed race descendants of Europeans and African slaves): - A process of forced removals under the Group Areas Act began destruction of Sophiatown (area of mixed Africans, Asians and Coloureds) became major political watershed.
Sophiatown Sophiatown, declared a ‘black spot’ under the Group Areas Act; removals to Meadowlands began 1955.
South Africa - Sophiatown became symbol - critical to early politicization and to drawing in support of Church
South Africa From the Apartheid government’s perspective, destruction of Sophiatown and construction in its place of white suburb called “Triomf’” set the pattern for policy of forced removals. Throughout 1950s and 1960s, millions of Africans were forcibly removed from homes in ‘white areas’ to ‘homelands’ or reservations.
South Africa A tribal reserve for black inhabitants of South Africa, and Southwest Africa (now Namibia) under the racial segregation policies of apartheid. - ten “bantustans” established in South Africa - ten in South-West Africa (then under South African administration. - reserves concentrated members of designated ethnic groups geographically, making each of those territories ethnically homogeneous.
South Africa H. F. Verword, Minister of Native Affairs, later Prime Minister, and Secretary for Native Affairs, architects of the policy. - transformed African reserves into “self- governing states,” “bantustans”, homelands ruled out possibility of full independence for these states - in 1959 that policy would change The homeland policy was designed to maintain and strengthen white supremacy.
South Africa Like colonialism elsewhere, key element was education: - ‘Bantu’ (legal reference to African blacks) education to replace earlier mission schools: - “there is no place for the Bantu above a certain level of labour” (minister for native affairs) - education to be ‘adjusted’ accordingly - many churches, as well as Africans saw this as ‘education for servitude’
South Africa Like earlier colonialism in other settler colonies, control of African movement was important: - Pass laws were extended; protest against extending passes to women were led by the ANC
South Africa “New Colonialism” strongly supported in neighbouring Rhodesia and Portuguese colonies (Angola and Mozambique) - also supported by many Western nations - South Africa portrayed itself as bulwark against the spread of communist ideas in Africa (following rhetoric of Ian Smith in Rhodesia)
South Africa Communist Party in South Africa active since the 1920s in labour issues - became increasingly supportive of ANC, especially when latter declared illegal - European and American interests were being kept ‘safe’ by South African policies
South Africa 1955 second attempt made to create truly national movement (earlier ‘Defiance Campaign (1952) largely unsuccessful: - at the ‘Weekend Congress’ document declaring desire for ‘freedom’ was passed, - referred to as the “Freedom Charter” (see ‘additional readings’) - called communist and socialist by Government - leaders of congress arrested
South Africa people charged with ‘treason’ against the state; led to “Treason Trials” - after 5 years all acquitted in humiliation for government - process gave impetus to ANC, brought leaders from all around the country together
South Africa ANC always claimed to be multi-ethnic, multi-racial: -1958, split occurred with some arguing that only Black Africans could win freedom for Black Africans - in part inspired by Nkrumah and Pan- Africanism, - in part by anti-communist members of the Pan African Congress (PAC)
South Africa PAC especially active in encouraging protests like the Bus Boycott which affected work, production -Durban ‘Beer Hall Protest’ organized locally by women - became a riot that spread nationwide - PAC built on it – leading up to Sharpeville!