Presentation on theme: "The Divided Kingdom, Babylonian Captivity, and Return from Exile LATER HISTORY OF ISRAEL."— Presentation transcript:
The Divided Kingdom, Babylonian Captivity, and Return from Exile LATER HISTORY OF ISRAEL
The Divided Kingdom The Promised Land was divided into two kingdoms: The Northern Kingdom of Israel Dates of Existence – c. 920 BC – 722 BC Capital – Samaria First King - Jeroboam The Southern Kingdom of Judah Dates of Existence – c. 920 BC – 587 BC Capital – Jerusalem First King - Rehoboam
Kingdom of Israel 10 of the 12 tribes chose Jeroboam as their king and the Kingdom of Israel was born Initially there was constant war between Israel and Judah because Judah continually tried to take control of the Northern Kingdom. There was then a period of peace and friendship before Israel was conquered and its people deported
The Fall of Israel – The Assyrian Captivity In 732 BC Israel threatened to attack Jerusalem (the capital of Judah). Judah asked for help from Assyria and paid a tribute to the Assyrian King Tiglath-Pileser III Tiglath-Pileser then sacked Israel and took control of territory to the far north of Israel Some inhabitants of Israel were taken captive and resettled in Assyria Israel was forced to pay an annual tribute to Assyria Years later, in about 725 BC, King Shalmaneser V of Assyria began a siege against Samaria (Israel’s capital) because Israel stopped paying tributes and tried to form a secret alliance with Egypt This siege ended in 722BC when the Assyrian King Sargon II finally took Samaria and deported the rest of the inhabitants of Israel to ensure they would not rebel (these deportees are often called the “Ten Lost Tribes”)
Kingdom of Judah The tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to the Davidic heir Rehoboam after Solomon’s death, causing the formation of the Kingdom of Judah Judah managed to stay intact even when threatened by Assyria or Egypt, but eventually fell to the Babylonians. In Judah there were two political parties, one was pro-Egyptian and one pro- Babylonian. At this time the pro-Egyptian party was in power and attempted to rebel against Babylon (who required payment of tributes from Judah). King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon attacked Jerusalem and took it over in 597 BC. This was the first phase of the Babylonian Exile. In 587 BC, after another attempted revolt, Nebuchadnezzar returned and destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple, thus putting an end to the Kingdom of Judah. He took many captives with him and brought them back to Babylon to ensure that there would not be another revolt
Cyrus the Great – Return from Exile By the mid-500s BC Babylonian power was diminishing and Persia was becoming powerful. Cyrus the Great was the King of Persia and in 540BC he conquered Babylonia. In 538 BC the Edict of Cyrus was issued, which allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple. Many returned and began a period of Restoration in Judah, but many remained in Babylon because King Cyrus allowed freedom of religion in his kingdom The Jews viewed Cyrus as a messiah because he not only saved them from Babylonian oppression, but also told the Jews to rebuild the Temple. He was viewed as being an instrument of God.
Alexander the Great - Hellenization In the 4 th century BC Alexander the Great began a sweeping conquest of the world. In 333 BC he conquered Persia and took control of the Levant, signaling the beginning of the Hellenization of Israel Hellenized means “Greek in character or culture” This meant that Greek became the main language of business (lingua franca), Greek art and architecture became more prevalent, and even Greek fashions were in vogue Eventually the Seleucid Empire came to control Israel and, under King Antiochus IV, Greek culture was forced onto the Jewish people This included making the Temple a Greek place of worship for the god Zeus Also, everyone must sacrifice to the pagan gods or face punishment and Judaism was outlawed
The Maccabean Revolt In 167 BC, a man named Matthias refused to worship the Greek gods and sparked a rebellion against the Seleucids. He died in 165BC and his son, Judas Maccabeus, continued the revolution. His army destroyed pagan altars, circumcised boys, and forced Jews to fight with them to topple the Seleucids Eventually the “Maccabees” won and reinstituted Judaism and rededicated the Temple This is where the Jewish holiday Hanukkah originates
The Prophet and His Role In the Divided Kingdoms there were many prophets who warned the kings and people to remain faithful to God or face his wrath. A prophet is someone who acts and speaks on behalf of God They often made predictions about the future and gave warnings to the kings/people about what will happen if they do not remain faithful to God
Prophets in the Northern Kingdom During King Ahab’s reign the Prophet Elijah was prophesying. Ahab is most known for marrying Jezebel, a woman who promoted Baalism and persecuted those who worshipped the LORD God. Elijah performed many miracles in order to show the power of the LORD God His most famous one was on Mount Carmel, where he challenged 450 prophets of Baal The Bible says that Elijah was taken up to Heaven in a flaming chariot (2 Kgs 11-12) Elisha then took his place as prophet to the Kingdom of Israel (see textbook pages 232-233)
Prophets in the Northern Kingdom Jonah was a prophet in the Kingdom of Israel who was instructed to go to Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, to instruct them to repent. Jonah did not want to do this and headed in the opposite direction. Jonah took a ship and God sent a storm to toss the ship. Jonah told the sailors to throw him overboard because the storm was his fault and then he was swallowed by a large fish (whale). He remained in the whale’s belly for 3 days before God told the fish to spit him out Jonah then went to Nineveh and caused the people to repent. This story shows that you cannot escape God because He is everywhere. It also shows that it is not always easy to obey God’s instructions.
Prophets in Judah Two of the most well-known prophets prophesized in the Southern Kingdom: Isaiah Jeremiah
Isaiah Isaiah was a prophet during the reigns of multiple kings during the latter half of the 8 th century (from abound 740 BC – 700 BC) He warned the people of Judah that they must repent or Judah will be destroyed Even though God will punish the people if they do not repent, Isaiah maintained that God would remain faithful to the promises He made to David Isaiah claimed that after being punished a “remnant of Judah” will return to Jerusalem and establish a new kingdom He was so serious about this idea that he named his first son Shear-Jashub (which means “A-Remnant-Shall-Return”)
Isaiah Isaiah is the best source of information regarding the role of the Messiah. He claimed that the David Kingdom ruled by the line of David (which seemed as though it had been chopped down and was dead) will someday be ruled by a Messiah and it would be more glorious than ever before Isaiah is referring to Jesus Christ when he speaks of a Messiah: “There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse (Is 11:1) Isaiah (in Isaiah 9) says that a child who will be known as the “Prince of Peace” will come from Galilee Isaiah 7:14 is one of the most famous (and most debated) lines about the Messiah: “Therefore the LORD Himself shall give you a sign. Behold, a young woman shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.” The translators of the Septuagint chose the translate the Hebrew word ‘almah as virgin. However, the Jews believe it means “young woman”. This has led to many arguments in the Middle Ages and exacerbated the tension between Christians and Jews.
Isaiah In Christianity, Isaiah’s “Songs of the Suffering Servant” are very important The Servant is believed to be Jesus Christ These songs describe the plight of a man called to be the “servant of the LORD” and lead the nations. However, he is horribly abused. The Servant then offers himself in sacrifice and accepts punishment for others. In the end, he is rewarded. There are four of these songs: Isaiah 42: 1-4; 49: 1-6; 50: 4-9; and 53 The most famous is Isaiah 53, which is believed to foretell Christ’s passion.
Reform of Josiah After Isaiah’s death King Manasseh took the throne and was very wicked He worship idols and burned his own son as an offering He was captured by the Assyrians and taken away, but he prayed to God and was brought back to Jerusalem He was a changed man and he became a very good and faithful king who got rid of paganism After Manasseh came Amon, who brought paganism back to Judah, but then came Josiah, who is famous for his religious reforms. During his reign “the book of the Law” was rediscovered (probably the Book of Deuteronomy) and Josiah made major changes to religion in Judah Josiah made it law to worship the LORD and banned other forms of worship, he destroyed pagan altars and temples, and he reinstituted the celebration of Passover.
Jeremiah Jeremiah began to prophesy one year after Josiah implemented his reforms Jeremiah’s main message was that the past sins of Judah were too great to prevent the impending doom that will befall them He was predicating the Babylonian Exile
Prophets of the Exile There were two major prophets active during the Exile: Daniel The man who was thrown into the Lion’s Den and given a high rank in Nebuchadnezzar’s court He predicted the fall of Babylonia at the hands of the Persians He also had many visions that deal with the powers that ruled Israel (in the form of a beast) and how someone (Christ) will come to put the beast to death (and free Israel) Ezekiel Ezekiel predicted the destruction of Jerusalem He also predicted the restoration of Jerusalem His vision of the “valley of dry bones” shows that this restoration will happen, but it is dependent on God alone
Wisdom Literature Wisdom Literature – The intention of wisdom literature is to teach people about God and about being virtuous. Proverbs - Traditionally believed to have been written by King Solomon, The Book of Proverbs is not simply a list of short sayings, but it also contains longer poems. The main theme of Proverbs is "the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.” (Proverbs 9:10) Psalms - Traditionally believed to have been written by King David. Each individual psalm is usually a poem that praises God. Scholars believe that the psalms were set to music in Biblical times.
Wisdom Literature Job - This is the story of a man who had everything he wanted, but then lost it all when God and Satan made a bet. The bet was that Job would curse God if he lost everything. Job did not curse God, but did curse the day he was born. God tells Job that there are many things about the world that he cannot possibly know. The themes of the book deal with questions such as: why do we suffer? The book also teaches that the wicked will be punished and the righteous will be rewarded in the end. Ecclesiastes - This is an autobiographical book told from the perspective of Koheleth (“Teacher”, “Preacher”). The book questions the meaning of life and the best way to live life. The book ends with the instruction to “Fear God, and keep his commandments; for that is the whole duty of everyone" (12:13)