3Bones and CartilageBone is a type of connective tissue that is hard and inflexible. The bones of the human skeletal system serve a number of different purposes
4Functions the BonesThey serve as sites of attachment for skeletal muscles and they serve as levers that make body parts move when these muscles contract.They give the body its general shape and support body structures.They protect delicate structures, such as the brain, spinal cord, heart and lungs.They serve as storage places for minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus.They serve as the places where RBCs and some WBCs are produced.
5Bone is made up of living bone cells, connective tissue fibers and inorganic compounds. It is an active tissue.There is constant destruction of old tissue and laying down of new tissue.A basic part of the structure is collagen.
6When bones are being formed, living cells called osteoblast secrete collagen and certain polysaccharides.The collagen forms fibers that are bound together by the calcium and phosphate ions, which act as cement.Bone is formed when calcium and phosphate ions from the body fluids combine, forming calcium phosphate.
7The calcium ions precipitates as crystals within the mass of collagen fibers and cement. The hardness and heaviness of bone are due to the presence of the calcium phosphate.The osteoblast are trapped in small cavities inside the bone substance to form bone cells called osteocytes
9Calcium and phosphate ions and form calcium phosphate OsteoblastsBody fluidsecretessecretesCalcium and phosphate ions and form calcium phosphateCollagen and polysaccharidesPrecipitates as crystals in collagen fibers and cementformCollagen fibers with polysaccharides which act as cementOsteoblasts are trapped in small cavities inside the bone substance to form bone cells called osteocytes
11The structure of the bone 1.In the bone, the osteocytes are arranged in a series of smaller and smaller circles with a common center.2. In the center of each series of circles, there is a cavity called the Haversian canal, which contains blood vessels and nerves.3. Tiny canals connect the osteocytesto each other and to the Haversian canal.4. The blood vessels within the Haversian canals carry oxygen and nutrients to the bone cells and remove wastes
12Look at the layers of bone and osteocytes running around the Haversian canal. Focus up and down and you can see tiny channels, like spider legs, extending from oblong lacunae. The osteocytes are sitting in the lacunae and the canals are canaliculi, which interconnect the lacunae with the major vessels. This series of channels allows the osteocyte to be nourished and regulated.
16The structure of the bone The outside of a bone, except at its ends where it connects to other bones, is covered by a tough membrane called periosteum.The main purpose of the periosteum is to make new bone for growth and repair.The periosteum is also the point at which muscles are fastened to bones. This membrane contains blood vessels and nerves that enter the bone.
17Types of Bony TissueCompact BoneSpongy BoneThey are made of the same material, but compact bone is very dense and strong, while spongy is more porous Most bones contain both types of tissue
21Bone Marrow Yellow Bone Marrow Red Bone Marrow It is made of fat cells.In adults, it is found in the hollow center of long bones.Red Bone MarrowIt makes RBCs, platelets, and some type of WBCsIn adults red marrow,is found in the spongy bone of vertebrae, ribs, breastbone, cranium and long bones.
24The Effects of the Nagasaki Atomic Bombing on the Human Body A: The bone marrow of a person who died after exposure to the bombing 1.8 km from the hypocenter. The femur is cut longitudinally, revealing the bone marrow. The bone marrow is sponge-like in appearance because of the lack of all hematopoietic (blood-making) cells (NS196B). B: Normal for control.
25CARTILAGEIt is like bone, is a type of connective tissue. While bone is rigid, cartilage bend easily.In the embryo, most of the skeleton is cartilage.As the embryo develops, minerals are laid down, and much of the cartilage slowly changes into bone. This process is called ossification, goes on into adulthood.In adults, it is found at the ends of ribs at joints, and in the nose and outer ear.It gives support while still allowing some bending motion.It allows the bones to bend more easily at joints and cushions against impact or pressure
26This is what cartilage looks like in the knee joint This is what cartilage looks like in the knee joint. It is glistening because it is very smooth and has a lubricating layer over it called synovial fluid.
29The Human Skeleton The Axial Skeleton Skull : The upper part of the skull is cranium,and rest of the skull is made of facial and jaw bonesSpinal column: has 33 bones called vertebraeRibs: are fastened at the back to the upper vertebrae and at the front of the breastboneBreastbone(sternum)The Appendicular SkeletonArm and leg bonesPectoral girdle: shoulder blades(scapula) and collar bones. It connects the arms to spinePelvic girdle: It is made up of the hip bones and connects the legs to the spine.
35JOINTSA point in the skeleton where bones meet is called a joint.
36At movable joints, bones are held together by tough, fibrous bands of connective tissue called ligaments . A fluid, called synovial fluid is secreted into movable joints. This fluid acts as a lubricant and reduces friction.
38The bones of the cranium (the part of the skull that protects the brain) are joined together by immovable jointsThe vertebrae are joined by slightly movable joints.
39Freely movable joints allow the most movement gliding (wrist bones; light back and forth)ball-and-socket (shoulder; free rotation)pivotal (head and neck; rotationin one plane)hinge (knee; hingelike extension and flexion in one plane).