Presentation on theme: "Section 2, Chapter 14 Pages 474-481. Your framework, or skeleton, is made up of all the bones in your body. Your skeleton has five major functions."— Presentation transcript:
Your framework, or skeleton, is made up of all the bones in your body. Your skeleton has five major functions. IT provides shape and support, enables you to move, protects your organs, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and other minerals until your body needs them.
The backbone, or vertebral column, is the center of the skeleton. 26 small bones make up your vertebrae that make up your backbone. A newborn baby’s skeleton is made of cartilage.
Your skeleton allows you to move. The muscles pull on your bones to make the body move. Bones protect many of the organs in your body.
Bones also store minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. Bones, in the skeletal system, make certain red blood cells.
Your body contains many small bones rather than fewer large ones. A joint is a place in the body where two bones come together. Joints allow bones to move in different ways. Two kinds of joints- immovable and movable.
Some joints in the body connect bones in a way that allows little or no movement. These joints are called immovable joints. The bones of the skull are held together by immovable joints.
Pivot joint- would be a neck vertebrae Be able to identify which joints are movable- knee and shoulder. Immovable- skull What kind of motion does a knee (hinge) joint allow? Backward and forward Which joint provides the greatest range of movement (ball and socket)? Shoulder
Movable joints are held together by strong connective tissues called ligaments. Hinge joints allow backward to forward motion. Most joints have a second type of connective tissue, called cartilage, which is more flexible than bone. Cartilage covers the ends of the bones and keeps them from rubbing against each other. The spaces in bones are filled with a soft connective tissue called marrow.
Bones are complex living structures that undergo growth and development. The femur if the body’s longest bone- it connects the pelvic bones to the lower leg bones. A tough membrane covers all of the bone through the membrane.
Beneath the bone’s outer membrane is a layer of compact bone, which is hard and dense, but not a solid. These canals carry blood vessels and nerves from the bone’s surface to the living cells within the bone.
Just inside the femur’s compact bone is a layer of spongy bone. Like a sponge, spongy bone has many small spaces within it. Spongy bone is found at the ends of the bone. It is lightweight, but strong.
The spaces in many bones contain a soft, connective tissue called marrow. Two types- red and yellow. Red marrow produces some of the body’s blood cells. Yellow marrow stores fat that can serve as an energy reserve.
The structure of bone makes it both strong and lightweight. They are so strong they can absorb more force without breaking than can concrete or granite rock. About 20% of an average adult’s body weight is bone. It is very lightweight.
Bones are alive- they contain cells and tissues, such as blood and nerves. Your body is continuously making new bone tissue. Sometimes it forms after an accident. The replacement of cartilage by bone tissue usually is complete by the time you stop growing.
A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise are important for a lifetime of healthy bones. Eat a well balanced diet that includes enough calcium and phosphorus to keep your bones strong. Your bones grow stronger and denser when you exercise.
To determine if a bone is broken, a doctor is most likely to use x ray images. The injury that occurs when a bone comes out of joint is called a dislocation.
As people become older, their bones begin to lose some of the minerals they contain. Mineral loss can lead to osteoporosis, a condition in which the body’s bones become weak and break easily. More common in women than men.