Presentation on theme: "Basic Anatomy and Biomechanics PE 254. Functions of the Musculoskeletal System Gives the body shape Gives the body shape Protects internal organs Protects."— Presentation transcript:
Functions of the Musculoskeletal System Gives the body shape Gives the body shape Protects internal organs Protects internal organs Provides for movement Provides for movement Consists of more than 600 muscles Consists of more than 600 muscles
Anatomy Muscles- provide movement & generate heat. generate heat. Ligaments- connect bone to bone injury = sprain Tendons- connect bone to muscle injury = strain Bones- protection & shape
The Skeletal System Gives form to the body Protects vital organs Consists of 206 bones Acts as a framework for attachment of muscles Designed to permit motion of the body
The Upper Extremity Shoulder girdle ArmElbowForearmWristHand
Joints Degree of movement Synarthrosis – immovable joint Synarthrosis – immovable joint (ex: the skull) Amphiarthrosis – slightly movable joint Amphiarthrosis – slightly movable joint (ex: fibrocartilaginous disc between the vertebrae; ligament or membrane links the two bones such as scapula to the clavicle) Diarthrosis – freely movable joint Diarthrosis – freely movable joint (ex: hip or shoulder joint)
Types of Muscle (1 of 3) Skeletal (voluntary) muscle Attached to the bones of the body Attached to the bones of the body Smooth (involuntary) muscle Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body
Types of Muscle (2 of 3) Smooth (involuntary) muscle Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body
Types of Muscle (3 of 3) Cardiac muscle Involuntary muscle Involuntary muscle Has own blood supply and electrical system Has own blood supply and electrical system Can tolerate interruptions of blood supply for only very short periods Can tolerate interruptions of blood supply for only very short periods
Muscle Groups Because a single muscle usually does not act alone when it exerts tension in normal body movement, it acts as one member of the team of muscles that partially or wholly can control or contribute to the joint movement occurring. Therefore, it is convenient and adequate in most cases of gross muscular analysis to refer to the action of “groups of individual muscles” rather than trying to name each one that is or might acting.
Examples of Muscle Groups Elbow flexors/extensors Knee flexors/extensors Shoulder abductors/adductors Shoulder flexors/extensors Hip flexors/extensors Hip abductors/adductors
Standard Reference Terminology Anatomical Reference Position Erect standing position with all body parts, including the palms of the hands, facing forward; considered the starting position for body segment movements
Basic Joint Articulations FlexionExtension Abduction Adduction Pronation (elbow and forearm) Supination (elbow and forearm)
Standard Reference Terminology Directional Terms SuperiorInferiorAnteriorPosteriorMedialLateralProximalDistalSuperficialDeep
Standard Reference Terminology Anatomical Reference Planes Cardinal planes – 3 imaginary perpendicular reference planes that divide the body in half by mass Sagittal plane Sagittal plane Frontal plane Frontal plane Transverse plane Transverse plane
Standard Reference Terminology Anatomical Reference Axes An imaginary axis of rotation that passes through a joint to which it is attached Mediolateral axis Mediolateral axis Anterioposterior axis Anterioposterior axis Longitudinal axis Longitudinal axis
PLANES of Motion AXES of Rotation SAGGITAL (FRONT TO BACK MAKING TWO HALVES, LEFT AND RIGHT) MEDIOLATERAL FRONTAL (SIDE TO SIDE MAKING TWO HALVES, FRONT AND BACK) ANTERIOPOSTERIOR TRANSVERSE (TRANSVERSE MAKING TWO HALVES, TOP AND BOTTOM) LONGITUDINAL Planes of Motion and Axes of Rotation
What could a biomechanist do to improve sport performance?
Group Activity Group 1: Lunges. Group 2: Standing broad jump. Group 3: Discus throw. Group 4: 100-meter sprint from the starting block. Group 5: Push-ups. Group 6: Shoulder press with barbells. Group 7: Free throws in basketball. Group 8: Javelin throw. Group 8: Javelin throw. Group 9: Bench press with straight bar. Group 10: Field-goal kick in football.
Group Activity Identify the following: 1. Joint(s) involved in activity 2. Muscle group(s) involved in activity 3. Plane(s) of motion 4. Axis(es) of rotation
Reminders No class on Monday, September 6 th in observance of Labor Day Quiz 2 on Wednesday, September 8 th