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Musculoskeletal System

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Presentation on theme: "Musculoskeletal System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Musculoskeletal System
& Emergencies

2 Functions of the Musculoskeletal System
Gives the body shape Protects internal organs Provides for movement Consists of more than 600 muscles

3 Anatomy Muscles - provide movement & generate heat.
Ligaments - connect bone to bone injury = sprain Tendons - connect bone to muscle injury = strain Bones - protection & shape

4 The Skeletal System Gives form to the body Protects vital organs
Consists of 206 bones Acts as a framework for attachment of muscles Designed to permit motion of the body

5 The Skull Note that text on graphic may be difficult to read.

6 The Neck

7 The Spinal Column Note that text on graphic may be difficult to read

8 The Thorax Note that text on graphic may be difficult to read

9 The Pelvis Note that text on graphic may be difficult to read

10 The Lower Extremity Hip Thigh Knee Leg Ankle Foot
Note that text on graphic may be difficult to read

11 The Upper Extremity Shoulder girdle Arm Elbow Forearm Wrist Hand
Note that text on graphic may be difficult to read

12 Joints Note that images are missing. Will any text accompany the images?

13 Types of Muscle (1 of 2) Skeletal (voluntary) muscle
Attached to the bones of the body Smooth (involuntary) muscle Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body

14 Types of Muscle (2 of 2) Cardiac muscle Involuntary muscle
Has own blood supply and electrical system Can tolerate interruptions of blood supply for only very short periods

15 Injuries Sprain Strain Dislocation Closed fracture Open fracture

16 Sprains & Strains Sprain Strain Joint injury with tearing of ligaments
Stretching or tearing of a muscle

17 S/S Pain Edema and Ecchymosis Joint instability
Treatment: - immobilize, ice, & elevate if possible

18 Dislocation A disruption of a joint, in which the bone ends are no longer in contact and the supporting ligaments are torn

19 S/S of a Dislocation Marked deformity Edema Pain
Tenderness on palpation Complete loss of joint function Distal numbness Treatment - immobilize, ice, elevate if possible.

20 Fractures Closed fracture Nondisplaced fracture Open fracture
does not break the skin Open fracture External wound Nondisplaced fracture Simple crack Displaced fracture deformity

21 Closed fracture Signs & symptoms
Pain Edema Possible deformity Contusion Loss of motion false motion Crepitus Guarding Treatment - immobilize, ice, elevate if possible.

22 Open fracture Signs & symptoms Pain Deformity
Break in skin and/or exposed bone Treatment - dressing, immobilize, ice, & elevate if possible

23 Old terminology Simple & compound

24 Types of Fractures Green stick Spiral Transverse Comminuted Pathologic

25 complications of fx blood vessel & nerve damage Fat embolus
disability or deformity

26 Bleeding (internal) Bones have a blood supply!
Fractures bleed internally - Femur - 1 liter Pelvis - 1 liter Tibia cc

27 Other considerations What is beneath fracture site? open fracture
Joint involved?

28 Tips & other stuff Angulation or angulated extremity
Depressed skull fracture Basilar skull fracture Flail Chest

29 Hip Injury Hip Fracture – classic presentation Hip Dislocation
Shortened, externally rotated Hip Dislocation Usually flexed and internally rotated Requires significant force

30 TX draw-sheet method Make NO attempt to straighten leg
Support with rolled blankets Prevent hip movement

31 Assessment of injured extremities
PMSC Pulse Movement Sensation Capillary refill Cold, blue, pulseless extremity has circulation problem


33 Splinting Why we splint... relieve pain
reduce tissue/vessel damage during movement

34 Types of splints Self splinting Pillows, blankets, & items of clothing
Sling & swath Rigid Cardboard plastic ladder Air or vacuum Traction

35 Traction splints Closed, mid-shaft femur fracture without hip, knee, or ankle injury.

36 General Principles of Splinting (1 of 2)
Remove clothing area PMSC Dress all wounds Do not move the patient before splinting

37 General Principles of Splinting (2 of 2)
Immobilize the joints Pad rigid splints Maintain manual immobilization. Realign angulations PRN When in doubt, splint Reassess PMSC Immobilize all suspected spinal injuries in a neutral in-line position* *pain, resistance, crepitus

38 Realignment issues NEVER REALIGN A JOINT

39 Basic Realignment Steps
Have all equipment ready & in place Explain procedure to patient In 1 move, with gentle traction, align extremity (goal is anatomical position) Use the least amount of force necessary. If resistance is met or pain increases, splint in deformed position. Reassess distal function

40 Remember No matter how bad the fracture our priorities are the ABC’s

41 Hazards of Improper Splinting
Further damage Delay in transport Reduction of distal circulation Aggravation of the injury Injury to tissue, nerves, blood vessels, or muscle

42 end Questions???

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