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Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Musculoskeletal System & Emergencies.

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Presentation on theme: "Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Musculoskeletal System & Emergencies."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Musculoskeletal System & Emergencies

3 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Functions of the Musculoskeletal System – Gives the body shape – Protects internal organs – Provides for movement – Consists of more than 600 muscles

4 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Anatomy l Muscles- provide movement & generate heat. generate heat. l Ligaments- connect bone to bone injury = sprain l Tendons- connect bone to muscle injury = strain l Bones- protection & shape

5 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies The Skeletal System l Gives form to the body l Protects vital organs l Consists of 206 bones l Acts as a framework for attachment of muscles l Designed to permit motion of the body

6 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies The Skull

7 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies The Neck

8 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies The Spinal Column

9 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies The Thorax

10 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies The Pelvis

11 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies The Lower Extremity l Hip l Thigh l Knee l Leg l Ankle l Foot

12 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies The Upper Extremity l Shoulder girdle l Arm l Elbow l Forearm l Wrist l Hand

13 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Joints

14 Types of Muscle (1 of 2) l Skeletal (voluntary) muscle –Attached to the bones of the body l Smooth (involuntary) muscle –Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body

15 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Types of Muscle (2 of 2) l Cardiac muscle –Involuntary muscle –Has own blood supply and electrical system –Can tolerate interruptions of blood supply for only very short periods

16 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Injuries l Sprain l Strain l Dislocation l Closed fracture l Open fracture

17 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Sprains & Strains l Sprain –Joint injury with tearing of ligaments l Strain –Stretching or tearing of a muscle

18 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies S/S l Pain l Edema and Ecchymosis l Joint instability l Treatment: - immobilize, ice, & elevate if possible

19 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Dislocation l A disruption of a joint, in which the bone ends are no longer in contact and the supporting ligaments are torn

20 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies S/S of a Dislocation l Marked deformity l Edema l Pain l Tenderness on palpation l Complete loss of joint function l Distal numbness l Treatment - immobilize, ice, elevate if possible.

21 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Fractures l Closed fracture –does not break the skin l Open fracture –External wound l Nondisplaced fracture –Simple crack l Displaced fracture –deformity

22 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Closed fracture l Signs & symptoms –Pain –Edema –Possible deformity –Contusion –Loss of motion –false motion –Crepitus –Guarding l Treatment - immobilize, ice, elevate if possible.

23 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Open fracture l Signs & symptoms –Pain –Deformity –Break in skin and/or exposed bone l Treatment - dressing, immobilize, ice, & elevate if possible

24 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Old terminology l Simple & compound

25 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Types of Fractures l Green stick l Spiral l Transverse l Comminuted l Pathologic l Epiphyseal

26 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies complications of fx l blood vessel & nerve damage l Fat embolus l disability or deformity

27 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Bleeding (internal) l Bones have a blood supply! l Fractures bleed internally - –Femur - 1 liter –Pelvis - 1 liter –Tibia cc

28 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Other considerations l What is beneath fracture site? l open fracture l Joint involved?

29 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Tips & other stuff l Angulation or angulated extremity l Depressed skull fracture l Basilar skull fracture l Flail Chest

30 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Hip Injury l Hip Fracture – classic presentation –Shortened, externally rotated l Hip Dislocation –Usually flexed and internally rotated l Requires significant force

31 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies TX l draw-sheet method l Make NO attempt to straighten leg l Support with rolled blankets l Prevent hip movement

32 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Assessment of injured extremities l PMSC –Pulse –Movement –Sensation –Capillary refill Cold, blue, pulseless extremity has circulation problem

33 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies ALWAYS CHECK DISTAL FUNCTION BEFORE & AFTER SPLINTING !!!!! AND DOCUMENT WHAT YOU FOUND !!

34 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Splinting l Why we splint... –relieve pain –reduce tissue/vessel damage during movement

35 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Types of splints l Self splinting l Pillows, blankets, & items of clothing l Sling & swath l Rigid –Cardboard –plastic –ladder l Air or vacuum l Traction

36 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Traction splints l Closed, mid-shaft femur fracture without hip, knee, or ankle injury.

37 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies General Principles of Splinting (1 of 2) l Remove clothing area l PMSC l Dress all wounds l Do not move the patient before splinting

38 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies General Principles of Splinting (2 of 2) l Immobilize the joints l Pad rigid splints l Maintain manual immobilization. l Realign angulations PRN l When in doubt, splint l Reassess PMSC l Immobilize all suspected spinal injuries in a neutral in-line position* *pain, resistance, crepitus

39 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Realignment issues l NEVER REALIGN A JOINT l NEVER REALIGN A INJURY WITH GOOD DISTAL FUNCTION l Only pulseless, longbone fractures

40 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Basic Realignment Steps l Have all equipment ready & in place l Explain procedure to patient l In 1 move, with gentle traction, align extremity (goal is anatomical position) l Use the least amount of force necessary. l If resistance is met or pain increases, splint in deformed position. l Reassess distal function

41 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Remember l No matter how bad the fracture our priorities are the ABC’s

42 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies Hazards of Improper Splinting l Further damage l Delay in transport l Reduction of distal circulation l Aggravation of the injury l Injury to tissue, nerves, blood vessels, or muscle

43 Musculoskeletal system & Emergencies end Questions???


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