Circulation in the Heart Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3ZDJgFDdk0http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3ZDJgFDdk0 Right Atrium Receives deoxygenated blood from vena cava Pumps deoxygenated blood to right ventricle Left Atrium Receives oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins Pumps oxygenated blood to left ventricle Right Ventricle Pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs for gas exchange via pulmonary arteries Left Ventricle Pumps oxygenated blood to the system (e.g., tissues and muscles) via aorta
Cardiorespiratory System Blood vessels Arteries = vessels that carry blood away from the heart Arteries = vessels that carry blood away from the heart Veins = vessels that carry blood to the heart Veins = vessels that carry blood to the heart Capillaries = very small blood vessels that distribute blood to all parts of the body Capillaries = very small blood vessels that distribute blood to all parts of the body
The Upper Extremity Shoulder girdle ArmElbowForearmWristHand
Joints Degree of movement Synarthrosis – immovable joint Synarthrosis – immovable joint (ex: the skull) Amphiarthrosis – slightly movable joint Amphiarthrosis – slightly movable joint (ex: fibrocartilaginous disc between the vertebrae; ligament or membrane links the two bones such as scapula to the clavicle) Diarthrosis – freely movable joint Diarthrosis – freely movable joint (ex: hip or shoulder joint)
Types of Muscle (1 of 3) Skeletal (voluntary) muscle Attached to the bones of the body Attached to the bones of the body Smooth (involuntary) muscle Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body
Types of Muscle (2 of 3) Smooth (involuntary) muscle Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body
Types of Muscle (3 of 3) Cardiac muscle Involuntary muscle Involuntary muscle Has own blood supply and electrical system Has own blood supply and electrical system Can tolerate interruptions of blood supply for only very short periods Can tolerate interruptions of blood supply for only very short periods
Muscle Fiber Types Slow-twitch fibers (Type I) Fatigue resistant Don’t contract as rapidly and forcefully as fast-twitch fibers Rely primarily on oxidative energy system Fast-twitch fibers ( Type II) Contract rapidly and forcefully Fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers Rely more on nonoxidative energy system
Muscle Groups Because a single muscle usually does not act alone when it exerts tension in normal body movement, it acts as one member of the team of muscles that partially or wholly can control or contribute to the joint movement occurring. Therefore, it is convenient and adequate in most cases of gross muscular analysis to refer to the action of “groups of individual muscles” rather than trying to name each one that is or might acting.
Examples of Muscle Groups Elbow flexors/extensors Knee flexors/extensors Shoulder abductors/adductors Shoulder flexors/extensors Hip flexors/extensors Hip abductors/adductors
Standard Reference Terminology Anatomical Reference Position Erect standing position with all body parts, including the palms of the hands, facing forward; considered the starting position for body segment movements
Basic Joint Articulations FlexionExtension Abduction Adduction Pronation (elbow and forearm) Supination (elbow and forearm)
Standard Reference Terminology Directional Terms SuperiorInferiorAnteriorPosteriorMedialLateralProximalDistalSuperficialDeep
Standard Reference Terminology Anatomical Reference Planes Cardinal planes – 3 imaginary perpendicular reference planes that divide the body in half by mass Sagittal plane Sagittal plane Frontal plane Frontal plane Transverse plane Transverse plane
Standard Reference Terminology Anatomical Reference Axes An imaginary axis of rotation that passes through a joint to which it is attached Mediolateral axis Mediolateral axis Anterioposterior axis Anterioposterior axis Longitudinal axis Longitudinal axis
PLANES of Motion AXES of Rotation SAGITTAL (FRONT TO BACK MAKING TWO HALVES, LEFT AND RIGHT) MEDIOLATERAL FRONTAL (SIDE TO SIDE MAKING TWO HALVES, FRONT AND BACK) ANTERIOPOSTERIOR TRANSVERSE (TRANSVERSE MAKING TWO HALVES, TOP AND BOTTOM) LONGITUDINAL Planes of Motion and Axes of Rotation
What could a biomechanist do to improve sport performance?
Group Activity Group 1: Lunges. Group 2: Standing broad jump. Group 3: Discus throw. Group 4: 100-meter sprint from the starting block. Group 5: Push-ups. Group 6: Shoulder press with barbells. Group 7: Free throws in basketball. Group 8: Javelin throw. Group 8: Javelin throw. Group 9: Bench press with straight bar. Group 10: Field-goal kick in football.
Group Activity Identify the following: 1. Joint(s) involved in activity 2. Muscle group(s) involved in activity 3. Plane(s) of motion 4. Axis(es) of rotation