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Chapter 4. FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Gives the body shape Protects internal organs Provides for movement Consists of more than 600 muscles.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4. FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Gives the body shape Protects internal organs Provides for movement Consists of more than 600 muscles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4

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3 FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Gives the body shape Protects internal organs Provides for movement Consists of more than 600 muscles

4 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Gives form to the body Protects vital organs Consists of 206 bones Acts as a framework for attachment of muscles Designed to permit motion of the body

5 ANATOMY Muscles: provide movement & generate heat. Ligaments: connect bone to bone; injury = sprain Tendons: connect bone to muscle; injury = strain Bones: protection & shape

6 JOINTS Degree of movement Synarthrosis – immovable joint (ex: the skull) Amphiarthrosis – slightly movable joint (ex: fibrocartilaginous disc between the vertebrae; ligament or membrane links the two bones such as scapula to the clavicle) Diarthrosis – freely movable joint (ex: hip or shoulder joint)

7 DIARTHROSIS JOINTS

8 EXAMPLES OF DIARTHROSIS JOINTS

9 STANDARD REFERENCE TERMINOLOGY ANATOMICAL REFERENCE POSITION Erect standing position with all body parts, including the palms of the hands, facing forward; considered the starting position for body segment movements

10 STANDARD REFERENCE TERMINOLOGY DIRECTIONAL TERMS Superior (closer to the head) Inferior (farther away from the head) Anterior (toward front of body) Posterior (toward back of body) Medial (toward the midline of the body) Lateral (away from the midline) Proximal (closer to the center of the body) Distal (farther away from the center of the body) Superficial (toward the surface of the body) Deep (inside the body and away from the surface)

11 BASIC JOINT ARTICULATIONS Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Pronation (elbow and forearm) Supination (elbow and forearm)

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20 HUMAN BODY MUSCLE DIAGRAM

21 MUSCLE GROUPS Because a single muscle usually does not act alone when it exerts tension in normal body movement, it acts as one member of the team of muscles that partially or wholly can control or contribute to the joint movement occurring. Therefore, it is convenient and adequate in most cases of gross muscular analysis to refer to the action of “groups of individual muscles” rather than trying to name each one that is or might acting.

22 EXAMPLES OF MUSCLE GROUPS Elbow flexors/extensors Knee flexors/extensors Shoulder abductors/adductors Shoulder flexors/extensors Hip flexors/extensors Hip abductors/adductors

23 PLANES OF MOTION

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25 PLANES of MotionAXES of Rotation SAGITTAL (FRONT TO BACK MAKING TWO HALVES, LEFT AND RIGHT) MEDIOLATERAL FRONTAL (SIDE TO SIDE MAKING TWO HALVES, FRONT AND BACK) ANTERIOPOSTERIOR TRANSVERSE (TRANSVERSE MAKING TWO HALVES, TOP AND BOTTOM) LONGITUDINAL

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27 GROUP ACTIVITY Group 1: Lunges. Group 2: Standing broad jump. Group 3: Frisbee throw. Group 4: Underhand toss/pitch in softball. Group 5: Push-ups. Group 6: Shoulder press with barbells. Group 7: Free throws in basketball. Group 8: Bench press with straight bar.

28 GROUP ACTIVITY Identify the following: 1. Joint(s) involved in activity 2. Muscle group(s) involved in activity 3. Plane(s) of motion 4. Axis(es) of rotation

29 MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE Muscular strength = the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort Muscular endurance = the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted (sustain a level of muscular force) or to contract repeatedly

30 MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY Muscles consist of many muscle fibers (cells) connected in bundles Muscle fibers are made up of myofibrils Strength training increases the number of myofibrils and the size of muscle fibers = hypertrophy Inactivity reverses the process = atrophy

31 SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE

32 MUSCLE FIBERS Slow-twitch fibers Fatigue resistant Don’t contract as rapidly and forcefully as fast-twitch fibers Rely primarily on oxidative energy system Fast-twitch fibers Contract rapidly and forcefully Fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers Rely more on non-oxidative energy system

33 MOTOR UNITS uMotor units (nerves connected to muscle fibers) are recruited to exert force

34 MOTOR UNIT RECRUITMENT

35 PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING Increased muscle mass and size of muscle fibers Increased utilization and coordination of motor units Increased strength of tendons, ligaments, and bones Increased storage of fuel in and blood supply to muscles Improvements in blood fat levels and biochemical processes

36 BENEFITS OF MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE Improved performance of physical activities Injury prevention Improved body composition Enhanced self-image and quality of life Improved muscle and bone health with aging Prevention and management of chronic disease

37 ASSESSING MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE Muscular strength assessed by determining repetition maximum (1 RM), the maximum resistance that can be lifted once Muscular endurance assessed by counting the maximum number of repetitions of a muscular contraction

38 TYPES OF STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES Static (isometric) exercise = muscle contraction without a change in the length of the muscle Dynamic (isotonic) exercise = muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle Concentric contraction = muscle applies force as it shortens Eccentric contraction = muscle applies force as it lengthens

39 TYPES OF DYNAMIC EXERCISE Constant resistance = constant load throughout a joint’s range of motion Variable resistance = changing load to provide maximal resistance throughout a joint’s range of motion Eccentric loading = placing load on a muscle as it lengthens Plyometrics = sudden eccentric loading and stretching followed by a concentric contraction Speed loading = moving a load as rapidly as possible Isokinetic exercise = exerting force at a constant speed against an equal force

40 MODES OF EXERCISE Isometric: muscle action that is performed against resistance at any point in a joint's range of motion, for periods of 5-10 seconds, and that produces no joint movement

41 MODES OF EXERCISE Isotonic: alternating concentric and eccentric muscle activation that moves a body part through an arc of motion against resistance

42 MODES OF EXERCISE Isokinetic: exercise that involves specialized equipment that provides "accommodating resistance" so that the joint moves at a constant angular velocity

43 MODES OF EXERCISE Plyometric: exercise that requires eccentric activation of muscles against a resistance, followed by concentric activation

44 SELECTING EQUIPMENT Choosing equipment: Weight machines versus free weights Resistance is provided by both types Exercise machines Safer, convenient, and easy to use Free weights Require more care, balance, and coordination Strength transfers to daily activities Workouts with resistance bands and stability balls also build strength

45 APPLYING THE FITT PRINCIPLE Frequency = days per week Intensity = amount of resistance Time = number of repetitions and sets Type = strength training exercises for all major muscle groups

46 FREQUENCY OF EXERCISE American College of Sports Medicine recommends 2-3 days per week Allow 1 full day of rest between workouts

47 INTENSITY OF EXERCISE: AMOUNT OF RESISTANCE Choose resistance based on your current fitness level and goals To build strength Lift heavy weights (80% of 1 RM) Perform a low number of repetitions To build endurance Lift lighter weights (40-60% of 1 RM) Perform a high number of repetitions For a general fitness program Lift moderate weights (70% of 1 RM) Moderate number of repetitions

48 TIME OF EXERCISE: REPETITIONS AND SETS To build strength and endurance, do enough repetitions to fatigue the muscles The heavier the weight, the fewer the repetitions (1-5) to fatigue = a program to build strength The lighter the weight, the higher the number of repetitions (15-20) to fatigue = a program to build endurance To build both strength and endurance, try to do 8-12 repetitions of most exercises

49 TIME OF EXERCISE: REPETITIONS AND SETS Set = a group of repetitions followed by a rest period For general fitness, 1 set of each exercise is sufficient Doing more than one set will increase strength development Rest between sets

50 TRAINING FOR STRENGTH VERSUS TRAINING FOR ENDURANCE

51 TYPE OF EXERCISE For a general fitness program: 8–10 different exercises Work all major muscle groups Balance between agonist and antagonist muscle groups Do exercises for large-muscle groups and multiple joints before exercises for small-muscle groups or single joints

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53 WARM UP AND COOL DOWN Warm up prior to each weight training session with a general warm-up and a warm-up for the exercises you will perform Cool down after weight training, relax for 5-10 minutes, lower your heart rate

54 FITT PRINCIPLE FOR STRENGTH TRAINING

55 MAKING PROGRESS To start: Choose a weight with which you can do 8–12 repetitions with good form Maintain good form at all times Track your progress

56 SAMPLE WORKOUT CARD

57 MORE ADVANCED STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAMS Performing more sets of a smaller number of repetitions with a heavier weight Cycle training (periodization) by varying type and amount of exercise Consult a coach certified by the National Strength and Conditioning Association or another reliable source

58 WEIGHT TRAINING SAFETY Use proper lifting techniques Use spotters and collars with free weights Be alert for injuries

59 A CAUTION ABOUT SUPPLEMENTS AND DRUGS

60 Supplements taken to increase muscle growth: Anabolic steroids Human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) Growth hormone Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) Beta-agonists Protein, amino acid, and polypeptide supplements and so-called metabolic optimizing meals

61 SIDE EFFECTS OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS Liver damage and tumors Reduced HDL High blood pressure, heart disease, cancer Depressed immune function Psychological disturbances Depressed sperm and testosterone production; breast development in males Masculinization in women and children Premature closure of bone growth centers

62 A CAUTION ABOUT SUPPLEMENTS AND DRUGS Supplements taken to speed recovery from training: Creatine monohydrate Chromium picolinate Substances taken to increase training intensity and overcome fatigue Amphetamines Caffeine

63 A CAUTION ABOUT SUPPLEMENTS AND DRUGS Substances taken to increase endurance Erythropoietin Darbepoetien Substances taken to aid weight control Diethylpropion, phentermine Caffeine, ephedra Dinitrophenol Diuretics

64 EVALUATING DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Do you need a supplement at all? Is the product safe and effective? What studies have been done? What has the research shown? Can you be sure that the specific product is of high quality?

65 REVIEW Group 1: Lunges. Group 2: Standing broad jump. Group 3: Frisbee throw. Group 4: Underhand toss/pitch in softball. Group 5: Push-ups. Group 6: Shoulder press with barbells. Group 7: Free throws in basketball. Group 8: Bench press with straight bar.

66 CONNECT WORKSHEET ASSIGNMENT Chapter 4 Connect worksheet is due on Wednesday, October 24 th, no later than 11:59PM.


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