Presentation on theme: "Basic Anatomy of Musculoskeletal System"— Presentation transcript:
1 Basic Anatomy of Musculoskeletal System Massage ATutor: Eleshia Howell
2 Aim...To provide a basic overview of the muscles, bones and soft tissue of the body, so you can become familiar with their names and their function(s).A&P class will cover in more depth, as will Massage B in second semester.Tip: the more you study them, the easier it will become over the next few months to piece your knowledge together!
3 Skeletal system Bones Cartilage Joints Ligaments The 206 bones of the skeleton are divided into two sections –Axial skeleton, which contains the skull, vertebral column (spine), sternum and ribs.Appendicular Skeleton, containing the shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, upper limbs and lower limbs.Skeletal system
4 Function of Skeletal system Enables movementProvides protection for organs and internal structuresProduces blood cells (in bone marrow)Stores minerals, eg calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesiumProvides attachment for muscles (important for massage therapists for palpation and assessment purposes)
5 Joints Also known as arthroses Various types, depending on the action of the jointWhere two or more bones connect, is called an articulation.Ligaments connect bone to bone, to form a jointAllow range of motion (ROM) or movement and flexibility.
6 CartilageIs avascular (no blood supply), tough, protective tissue capable of withstanding repeated stressFound mainly in the chest, joints and certain rigid tubes of the body (eg larynx, trachea, nose, ears) to provide a supported passageway.Most common form of cartilage is that which is found at the ends of bones to provide a smooth surface for movement.The discs between vertebrae and also between the pubic bone are forms of cartilage, as are the external structures of the ears and nose.
7 Muscles are extremely elastic, very vascular and have the unique ability to contract and stretch to provide movement.There are 3 main types:Smooth (involuntary)CardiacSkeletal (voluntary)The Muscular system comprises of –Skeletal musclesRelated fasciaTendons – attach muscle to boneMuscles
8 Function of MusclesMotion (the body moving its parts) and Locomotion (the body moving as a whole)Motility – when the smooth muscles of internal organs produce movement.Heat production – assisting metabolism and homeostasisMaintaining posture and joint stabilityThere are approx 640 skeletal muscles in thehuman body!
9 Terminology in relation to muscles... ORIGIN: the attachment of the muscle to the least movable bone. Usually located on the medial or proximal aspect.INSERTION: the attachment of the muscle at the most movable bone site, often on the distal or lateral aspect.ACTION: what movement(s) the muscle performs, eg flexion, extension, rotation.INNERVATION: the nerve supply for that muscle
11 Anatomical Position:For medical reference purposes the parts of the human body are described in relation to other parts of the body using a standard body position, known as the Anatomical position.The body is erect and facing forward, the arms are at the side of the body with palms facing forward and the feet are placed about hip distance apart, with toes facing forward.Physical observation / assessment are based on this standard position.
12 Planes of the bodyOur bodies are 3-Dimensional and are likewise referred to in specific sections, or planes.
13 Sagittal (or Median) Plane: runs vertically down the body, from front to back. Cuts the body into left and right sides.Coronal (or Frontal) Plane: passes vertically through the body from side to side, creating front and back.Transverse (or Horizontal) Plane: passes horizontally through the body, creating upper and lower sections.
16 Directional References Anterior (Ventral) – frontPosterior (Dorsal) – backMedial – toward or near the midline of the bodyLateral – to the side or away from midlineSuperior – above, or toward the headInferior – below, or toward the feetProximal – nearer to the point of referenceDistal – further from the point of reference
17 Homolateral (Ipsilateral) – related to the same side of the body Contralateral – related to the opposite side of the bodySuperficial (Peripheral) – the outside surface, or surrounding areaCentral (Deep) – situated at the centre of the body or structureInternal – within or insideExternal – outside or outer surface.
18 Action TerminologyFlexion – to bend or decrease the angle of a joint. Either forward or lateral.Extension – to straighten or increase the angle of a joint. Hyperextension is going beyond anatomical position.Abduction – movement away from the midlineAdduction – movement towards the midlineSupination – lateral (outward) rotation of the forearm (palms up...soup bowl!)
19 Action TerminologyPronation – medial (inward) rotation of the forearm (palms down)Plantarflexion – extension of the ankle so that toes are pointing downwardDorsiflexion – flexing the ankle to that toes are pulled back towards shin.Inversion – turning the sole of the foot inwardEversion – turning the sole of the foot outward
20 Action TerminologyRotation – circular movement when a bone moves around its own axis.Circumduction – when the distal end moves in a circle and proximal end remains relatively fixed (shoulder, hip, digits)Elevation – raising or lifting a body part, moving superiorlyDepression – lowering or dropping a body part, moving inferiorly
21 Action Terminology Protraction – moving forward, or anteriorly Retraction – moving backward, or posteriorlyOpposition – when thumb moves toward any other digit on same hand.Lateral deviation – side-to-side movement (usually in reference to jaw)***