Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Personality. Personality Overview –Personality is an elusive concept. –Some psychologists have developed “grand theories” of personality. –Others."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 13 Personality
Personality Overview –Personality is an elusive concept. –Some psychologists have developed “grand theories” of personality. –Others have tried to identify personality types and describe why an individual classified as a certain “personality type” behaves in certain ways. –This chapter, we will examine the ways of understanding personality and also discuss the ways of and problems in measuring this concept.
Personality Theories: What’s behind the mask? Personality -- from the Latin word persona or “mask” that Greek actors used to wear to indicate if they were comic or tragic. What is Personality? –Your characteristic pattern of thinking/ feeling/ acting, esp. in social contexts. –Implies some level of consistency across time and contexts This chapter –Psychodynamic Approach –Humanistic Approach –Miscellaneous Facts & Assessment
FIGURE 13.1 Philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau held opposing views of human nature. Psychologists Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers also held conflicting views. Freud, like Hobbes, stressed the more negative aspects of human nature; Rogers, like Rousseau, the more positive aspects. Two major approaches: psychodynamic & humanist
Psychodynamic theories Personality as the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual, including some forces that the individual may not consciously acknowledge.
Sigmund Frued First psychodynamic personality theory Background - Born 1856 Austro-Hungarian Empire - Went into training as a medical doctor - Theory based largely on sessions with his patients - Nervous disorders sometimes didn’t make neurological - Sense and talking often revealed emotional problems and resolved symptoms Discussed cases with colleague Josef Breuer -- who used hypnosis as a way to help cure patients with various neuroses (e.g., Anna O)
Sigmund Frued announced a new technique called free association. Patients express any random thoughts that enter their minds. Unconscious thoughts and memories brought to the conscious, allowing the patient to understand them. This will hopefully free the patient from the problem. Free association led to a therapy known as psychoanalysis. - Focused biologically based instinctual drives, especially sex and aggression. - Very young children also have these drives and they influence fantasies, problem solving and social interactions
Personality Freud and the psychodynamic approach –Although Freud’s theory had an enormous impact on society during the 20th century, his influence within psychology is waning. –His theory is very difficult to test empirically. –Although many psychologists find nothing useful in the Freudian paradigm, its tenets are still utilized by some mental health practitioners.
Freud’s view of the mind conscious-- what you’re aware of, can verbalize and think about in a logical fashion. preconscious -- ordinary memory. Not conscious, but can be easily brought into conscious. unconscious -- not directly accessible. A dump box for urges, feelings and ideas that are tied to anxiety, conflict and pain. These feelings and thoughts still exert influence on our actions and our conscious awareness.
Psychodynamic approach: Where does personality come from? shaped by internal conflicting forces. individual may be unaware of these. conscious vs. the unconscious the unconscious =stuff in our minds that we’re not aware of. –includes some memories, thoughts, & emotions that are illogical or socially unacceptable. –often at odds with our conscious minds –affects our behavior
Three Portions of Personality in Psychosexual Theory Id--(unconscious)-- sexual and aggressive impulses -- represents biological needs and desires, and requires immediate gratification Superego--(mainly unconscious) moral ethical principles -- represents values of society and conscience; a primitive and unconscious sense of morality; it is the internalization of the world view and norms a child absorbs from parents and peers. A primitive knowledge of right and wrong. Ego (mainly conscious) reality oriented functions develops in early infancy and is the conscious, rational part of personality It is the mediator between the id and the superego ID SUPEREGO EGO conscious unconscious
The psychodynamic approach: How does a child’s personality develop? Stages of Psychosexual Development According to Freud people have a libido (psychosexual energy) = all the sensations of excitement that arise from body stimulation. He believed that how we manage this aspect of our development influences nearly all aspects of our personality as we grow up, we go through 5 psychosexual stages how we deal with the stages ultimately determines personality (“fixation”)
Personality Freud’s psychosexual stages of development –The Oral Stage (The first year of life) The infant derives intense psychosexual pleasure from stimulation of the mouth, particularly from breastfeeding but from oral contact with other objects as well. Oral fixation might involve problems with eating, drinking, substance use, and issues of dependence on/independence from others.
Freud’s psychosexual stages of development –The Anal Stage (About 1 to 3 years old) The child derives intense psychosexual pleasure from stimulation of the anal sphincter, the muscle that controls bowel movements. This is partly related to toilet training, which usually occurs at this stage. Anal fixation might involve problems with:. –Anal retentive traits--being obsessively clean, overly tidy, very orderly, controlled, punctual, stingy and possessive. due to strict attitudes towards toilet training. –Anal expulsive traits-- poorly organized and perhaps aggressive. Due to lax attitudes towards toilet training.
Freud’s psychosexual stages of development The Phallic Stage (About 3 to 6 years of age) The child derives intense psychosexual pleasure from stimulation of the genitals, and becomes attracted to the opposite-sex parent. Phallic fixation might involve fear of being castrated (in boys) or “penis envy” in girls.
Freud’s psychosexual stages of development The Latent Period (About 6 years to adolescence) The child in this period suppresses his or her psychosexual interest. Children in this age group tend to play mostly with same sex peers. There is some evidence that the “latent period” is a cultural artifact. Children in some non-industrialized societies do not experience a period of “latency.”
Freud’s psychosexual stages of development The Genital Stage (Adolescence and beyond) The individual in this period has a strong sexual interest in other people. If he or she has completed the other stages successfully, primary psychosexual satisfaction will be gained from sexual intercourse. The individual who is fixated in an early period of development has little libido left for this stage.
Table 13.1 Freud’s stages of psychosexual development.
Name that fixation! Your friend Oscar can’t seem to go more than 30 minutes without lighting up a cigarette. Freud would say that he… Is fixated in the oral stage.
Name that fixation Your friend Annie can’t seem to hang on to a cent. She spends her money wildly. Her roommates are always threatening to call the health department because she never cleans up after herself and her room always looks like a “pigsty.” Freud would say that she… Is fixated in the anal stage.
Evaluation of Freud’s stages Difficult to test empirically. Research inconclusive. Personality attributes for people who are “fixated” at certain stages do seem to correlate, there is no evidence that they result from the difficulties that Freud hypothesized occur at those ages (i.e. “penis envy” in the Phallic Stage).
To deal with anxiety: defense mechanisms tricks used by ego to push unpleasant things unconscious; they reduce anxiety & are usually healthy excessive anxiety may be due to libido problems: lack of sexual gratification excessive masturbation traumatic childhood sexual experiences The psychodynamic approach: What else did Freud say?
The psychodynamic approach: Common defense mechanisms 1. Rationalization (making excuses): Reframing unpleasant events as actually good, justifiable or rational 2. Repression (motivated forgetting): Forgetting painful or upsetting thoughts/feelings/events 3. Regression: Returning to a more juvenile way of thinking or acting 4. Reaction formation: Presenting your ideas/feelings as the opposite of what they really are 5. Projection: Attributing your own undesirable characteristics/motives to someone else 6. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge an unpleasant event/thought 7. Displacement (scapegoating): Diverting your thoughts/impulses from their actual target to a less threatening target 8. Sublimation: Transforming sexual or aggressive energies into more acceptable, pro-social behaviors
You promised yourself that you would exercise regularly, but you haven’t exercised in about 3 months. You think: “Well, I can justify this because I have been very busy … and if I had exercised I probably would have gotten injured and done poorly in my classes.” Rationalization Name that defense mechanism!
Your boss yells at you. You come home and yell at your spouse. Your spouse yells at your child. Your child goes out to the yard and yells at the dog. Displacement Name that defense mechanism!
Expanded to psychoanalysis: therapeutic process: bringing parts of the unconscious into consciousness catharisis (therapeutic release of pent-up emotions) The psychodynamic approach & psychoanalysis
The psychodynamic approach: Freud’s legacy Freud generally did not use the “scientific method” And many of his findings discredited. However … There is an unconscious mind. People do often have conflicting motives. Childhood experiences and sexual development do affect later outcomes Relationships with people in our family do influence relationships we have with others.
Neo-Freudians Psychologists and others who adopted some parts of Freud’s theory and modified others. Karen Horney believed Freud exaggerated the role of sexuality, and misunderstood the motivations of women and the dynamics of family relationships.
Neo-Freudians Carl Jung Greater emphasis on continuity of human experience and need for spiritual meaning. Fascinated by similar images and themes (e.g., in art, stories) and themes across cultures In addition to personal conscious and unconscious mind Jung proposed idea of “collective unconscious.” –Present at birth, reflects cumulative experiences of all of our ancestors. –Contains archetypes -- figures and themes that emerge repeatedly in human history and across world cultures (e.g., Anima/Animus)
Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler “individual psychology.” “individual” -- understanding the whole person, not partitioned as in Freudian framework. striving for superiority -- natural desire to seek personal excellence and fulfillment We create a style of life, which is our plan for achieving a sense of superiority –Many paths to superiority Competition in business, sports, etc. Self sacrificing Committing crimes for attention Complaining to get control Making excuses for lack of achievement (“if only ….”) People who do not succeed may suffer from an inferiority complex, an exaggerated feeling of inadequacy, throughout
Neo-Fruedians Adler –Social Interest -- sense of belonging and identification with others healthy striving for superiority involved concern for the needs and welfare of others. Mental Health: –Social interest –Effective striving for superiority Psychopathology: –Lack of social interest –Setting inadequate goals, –Faulty style of life
Neo-Fruedians Adler’s Legacy Mental health as a positive state (not just the absence of neurosis) Inferiority complex Approaches to therapy based on how people’s assumptions influence behavior Emphasis on social interest
Summary of Neo-Fruedians Adopted some parts of Freud’s thinking and modified other parts. Note: Still did not generally use “the scientific method”
The Learning Approach How do you develop a personality? –You learn it! The learning approach –Questions concept of personality. People frequently behave differently depending on social context. –E.g., We may act differently with our parents, coworkers, friends. Learning approach relates specific behaviors to specific experiences. Often the experiences from which we learn are those of other people in our environment. –Helps explain variations in behavior across people and situations
The Learning Approach How do people learn? –Social Learning Theories Imitating models We are most likely to imitate models with perceived similarity Principle of vicarious reinforcement –Example -- gender roles psychological aspect of being male or female (as opposed to your biological sex.) Cross-cultural research suggests that components of the male and female gender roles are learned. Boys can be observed to imitate men, and girls to imitate women.
The humanistic approach people are essentially good (in contrast to neutral stance of behaviorism or negative view of psychoanalytic theories) people strive toward self-actualization state of achieving one’s full potential. personality depends on what people believe behavior is not determined by “simple” causes look at “peak experiences” two Major People: Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
Humanistic psychology: Carl Rogers –People strive toward self-actualization: a state of achieving one’s full potential. –Children develop a self-concept, an image of the person that they really are and an ideal self, an image that represents the person they would like to be. –Psychological distress is generated from mismatch between self-concept and the ideal self.
Humanistic psychology: Carl Rogers human welfare best served in atmosphere of unconditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard involves the acceptance of the person as he or she is. Most people receive conditional positive regard in their important relationships. This means that the person is only held in esteem when they fulfill certain requirements set for them by the other person or society.
Abraham Maslow –proposed that people have a hierarchy of motivating needs and that the highest need of these is the need to become self-actualized. –Maslow developed a list of characteristics of the self-actualized person based on people who, in his opinion, had achieved the state.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self Actualization--growth- oriented motive that sits atop a pyramid of needs As more basic needs are met people direct themselves towards higher level needs (e.g., love and esteem). If those needs are met people direct their needs towards self- actualization-- Self Actualization -- a motive that urges the person to make optimal use of his or her full potential, to become a more effective, creative participant in daily life
SELF-ACTUALIZED PEOPLE (anecdotal evidence): perceive reality accurately enjoy life are independent, spontaneous, creative treat others with unconditional positive regard Critics correctly point out that this is not a scientific list, and merely represents characteristics that Maslow admired in people. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Personality Personality theory in many ways seeks to describe human nature. It raises some fascinating questions that do not seem easily answerable. Many researchers in the area of personality are working on these questions in small steps in hopes of eventually synthesizing an accurate larger picture of who we as humans really are.
The Trait Approach Personality Traits The main idea of the trait approach to personality is that there exists in people consistent personality characteristics that can be identified, measured and studied.
Traits vs. States Personality traits and states –A trait is a consistent, long-lasting tendency in behavior, E.g., sociability, shyness or assertiveness. –A state is a temporary activation of particular behavior. E.g., getting angry when someone cuts you off on the freeway
Concept Check: You become very, very nervous whenever you have a psychology test scheduled. Are you experiencing “trait anxiety” or “state anxiety?” State anxiety
Table 13.2 Sample items from the Internal–External scale. Types of Traits: Locus of Control
The search for broad personality traits –Locus of control Individual’s perception of the amount of control that he or she has over the course of life events. People who believe that their lives are controlled by external forces are said to have an external locus of control. People who believe that they are in charge of their lives have an internal locus of control. –Implications for how people go about their lives.
Personality The search for broad personality traits –The Big Five personality traits Cattell identified 35 different personality traits Psychologists used factor analysis to determine which traits overlapped and which did not. Based on this approach, researchers identified what are termed the “Big Five” personality traits: These are: neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to new experience.
The Big Five personality traits Neuroticism-- tendency to experience unpleasant emotions very easily. Extraversion-- tendency to seek stimulation and enjoy the company of other people. Agreeableness--tendency to be compassionate rather than antagonistic towards others. Conscientiousness--tendency to show self-discipline, to be reliable, and to strive for competence and achievement. Openness to Experience -- tendency to enjoy new experiences and new ideas.
Personality The search for broad personality traits –Criticisms of the Big Five description: It was based on a study of the English language, not on observations of human behavior. There are too few traits included. There are too many traits included. It has limited applicability cross-culturally.
Personality characteristics Why do different people have different personalities? Some miscellaneous factors: Heredity: Twin & family studies strongly suggest a genetic component to things like extroversion. Older Age more consistency in personality Historical Era anxiety is increasing
Personality Psychologists are still grappling with the enigma of human personality. People are not just different from each other; the same people are different depending on the situation. We are complex creatures and this area of research is very challenging.