Presentation on theme: "Motivation Motivation concerns the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. Tries to identify why people seek to do."— Presentation transcript:
Motivation Motivation concerns the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. Tries to identify why people seek to do the things they do.
Theories of Motivation Drive Theory (Hull 1943) - A drive is a state of unrest or irritation that energizes one behavior after another until one of them removes the irritation. According to Hull’s drive reduction theory animals and humans behave so that they can reduce drives. If you are thirsty you are driven to drink All behavior occurs to reduce drives
Problems with drive theory Most people seek variety and activity in life. We like a moderate amount of stimulation. In short we are not driven, to have no drive at all. It also ignores external stimulation. We are not only driven by hunger, but also by which foods are available. Cheese cake
Homeostasis theory an addition to drive theory Homeostasis is the maintenance of an optimum level of biological conditions within an organism humans and animals are motivated to maintain a state of equilibrium, not to reduce all drive to zero. We strive to maintain an optimum body temperature. Put on or take off clothes shiver or sweat same with food and water
Problem with homeostasis theory It ignores the fact that new stimuli can arouse motivated behaviors. Even if you are not hungry, you may eat to be sociable, or because someone has made something you really like, or you have never tried before.
Incentive Theories Incentives are external stimuli that pull us toward certain actions. In contrast drives are internal forces that push us to behave in certain ways A tasty looking desert has appeal and draws us toward it regardless of whether we have a hunger drive
Most motivated behaviors are a combination of drives and incentives Thus if we are hungry we are driven to relieve that hunger, however a piece of pie may have more incentive (draw us more) than a piece of bread
Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation An intrinsic motivation is a motivation to engage in act for it’s own sake. playing the guitar or piano, playing basketball, painting. We engage in many behaviors, just because doing the behavior is reward enough.
Extrinsic motivation Motivation based on the rewards and punishments that an act may bring. Working -- for pay studying -- to get the social reward of doing well, to avoid feeling guilty about the money you lost if you fail
Most behavior probably results from a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Artists paint for the intrinsic “joy” of painting, but also for “money” and “social recognition” that can come from painting. Is it always better to have a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation? Are we more motivated to play the guitar if we get paid, than if we don’t get paid?
Greene, Sternberg and Lepper (1976) Mathematical games with schoolchildren The children seemed to enjoy them. After a while, they started giving rewards for success. When they took away the rewards, the children stopped playing the games. The children had decided that they were playing for the reward, not for the fun The seven year old fly fisherman and his parents.
Types of motivation Primary and secondary primary motivation (nature) are automatic, built-in processes. Search for food, water, and sex. Secondary motivations (nurture) develop as a result of specific learning experiences. Strive to get Money - associated with ability to get food, and other basic needs strive to get certain types of foods and drinks - cheese, coffee, beer strive to get certain kinds of sexual partners?
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs An organization of needs (motivators) from the most necessary and insistent to the ones that receive attention when all others are under control
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Physiological needs food, drink, shelter Safety needs The world is organized and predictable. Need to feel safe secure and stable Paranoid schizophrenia Fugitive from the law Dangerous part of a city
Belongingness and love needs. Need to be accepted Need to avoid loneliness and alienation. Need to be loved Esteem needs Need for achievement and independence. Need for recognition and respect from others Self-actualization Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential
Emotion Emotions may be necessary for making good decisions Phineas Gage in 1848 an explosion caused an iron railroad spike to shoot through his head damaged his prefrontal cortex showed little emotions Although he was easily provoked and combative lost values no restraint in sexual advances, or profanity could not carry out long-term plans
Elliot Damage to prefrontal cortex to remove a tumor. No emotional experiences cannot make plans or “good” decisions perhaps his inability to make decisions, comes from not having emotional feedback how do you evaluate a good thing versus a bad thing if you don’t feel anything when you consider it?
Emotional intelligence The ability to perceive, imagine, and understand emotions and to use that information in decision making evaluating the emotional content of social interactions. A car cutting you off in traffic, get mad ignore it depends partially on how you interpret the emotionality of the situation
Lie detection – an attempt to detect the emotionality involved in telling a lie The polygraph is an instrument that records physiological indications of sympathetic nervous system arousal blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, electrical conduction of skin (sweaty palms increase electrical conduction). The idea is that people that lie become nervous and will show a sympathetic response.
Is the lie detector effective? 50 criminal cases, two suspects took the polygraph, and one later confessed to the crime. About 76% of the guilty suspects were judged to be lying by experts. However, 37% of the not guilty suspects were also judged as lying our justice system advocates avoiding incarceration of not guilty individuals. This finding illustrates why lie detectors are not allowed in criminal cases. It shows that physiological response is an indicator of lying ( it is just not precise enough)
Theories of emotion First let’s examine what common sense tells us. If you see something that scares you what happens? You see a large man wearing a hockey mask and holding a bloody knife approaching you you get scared your heart-rate increases and other sympathetic responses The three major theories of emotion differ from this interpretation
James-Lange theory of emotions Proposed independently by William James and Carl Lange in A person’s interpretation of a stimulus evokes the autonomic changes directly; the emotion is a perception of those changes. See killer heart rate increases, and blood pressure increases, therefore I must be scared. It is the physiological response that determines what emotion you think you are experiencing
More James-Lange Differences in the autonomic response will be subtle for many emotions, anxiety and happiness can have similar sympathetic responses perhaps facial responses and other physical responses tell us what emotion we are experiencing I am smiling and laughing; I must be happy. Frowning and clenching my fists; I must be angry Frowning and running; I must be afraid
A test of James-Lange Read comics while holding pen in teeth (similar to smiling). Or while holding pen in lips (similar to frowning). Rate how funny the comics are The comics were rated reliably funnier when the pen was held in the teeth.
Cannon-Bard Theory of emotions Certain areas of the brain evaluate sensory information and, send one set of impulses to the autonomic nervous system and another set to the forebrain. The autonomic nervous system causes physiological changes The forebrain causes cognitive changes. These things happen in parallel. Neither one causes the other. They are activated at the same time
may be partially true People with spinal core injuries do not get input from the autonomic system Can still feel the cognitive aspects of fear, and anger. However they often say their emotions are somewhat flattened. Drugs that decrease the sympathetic response tranquilizers cause a decrease in reports of anxiety.
Schacter and Singer The intensity of the physiological state determines the intensity of the emotion, but not the type of the emotion. Cognitive appraisal of the situation tells us what emotion we are experiencing see killer causes physiological arousal I am very aroused “why?” look around and determine the situation. There is a killer so it must be fear
Schacter and Singer’s experiment Inject people with epinephrine (adrenaline), but told it was vitamins causes a sympathetic response. Half of the subjects were told to expect physiological arousal, the remainder were not told to expect anything Half of the subjects from each group were divided into two more groups 1. Euphoria situation 2. Anger situation Which member of your immediate family does not bathe or wash regularly? With how many men (other than your father) has your mother had extramarital relationships? 4 or fewer or more
If people had been told to expect a physiological response, they interpreted that response as an action of the drug. They did not become very euphoric or angry If people did not expect a physiological response, they interpreted that response as an emotional response to the situation. They had fun in the euphoric condition They got mad in the anger situation
This shows that it is not just the physiological response that determines emotion (as James- Lange said). Your cognitive appraisal of a physiological response determines the emotion. Arousal in a happy situation = happy Arousal in a mean situation = mad Arousal in a sad situation = sad
Try these Monica feels as though she is in love because she feels her heart race, is out of breath, and has shaky knees James - Lange Bill walks into a room and realizes that the gray shape behind the door is not a shadow but a man with a gun. His heart begins to race at the same time as he experiences the emotion of fear Cannon - Bard Rosemary notices that her palms are sweating and her heart is beating quickly. She looks around the room and sees that the teacher is handing out a pop quiz. So she concludes that she must be feeling nervous due to the quiz. Schacter and Singer After a hard night of drinking you feel sad and irritable, you attribute this to your room mate being an ass. This is a misattribution. I think it is consistent with Schacter and Singer’s idea. When we are depressed we often attribute it to someone, or something around us.