Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotion. Psychology of Motivation Motive- is a stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a specific goal. –"— Presentation transcript:
Instinct Theory Instincts- behavior patterns that are genetically transmitted from generation to generation. – Examples of instincts? – What is an instinct in today’s society for humans?
Drive Reduction Theory Based on learning as well as motivation People and animals experience a drive arising from a need as an unpleasant tension. People will learn to do whatever will reduce the tension by reducing the drive.
Humanistic Theory Argument that people are motivated and driven by personal fulfillment more than basic needs. People are willing to tolerate pain, hunger, and other kinds of tension to fulfill their goals. Self actualization- refers to the need to become what one believes he/she is capable of being. – Striving to become something is essential to human well-being
Sociocultural Theory Argue that even the most basic drives such as hunger and thirst are cultural experiences. This is a very important factor in all of our lives, but just how important?
Biological Needs People need food and water to survive However, food can mean so much more to a person that just something to shove in their face. Food can mark the time of day, month, and mood your in.
The Hunger Drive Role of Chewing – Chewing and swallowing sensation for us. – The hunger drive is usually satisfied once the food is digested and enters the bloodstream, however chewing seems to satisfy that need thus saving us from eating more. – It is smart to stop eating before you feel like you are going to explode.
The Hunger Drive The Role of the Stomach – Hunger pangs, or growling of the stomach is actually a thing when you are hungry due to stomach contractions. – Hunger can have effects on mood and actions Any ideas on examples?
The Hunger Drive The Hypothalamus – Level of sugar in the blood plays a key role in feelings of hunger. – When blood sugar drops it sends information to the brain which then regulates body temperature – The “start eating” and “stop eating” sensor in your brain is located here.
Psychological Needs: Stimulus Motives Stimulus Motives- Desires for stimulation that include activity, exploration, and manipulation Sensory deprivation- the absence of stimulation Experiment- students blindfolded and bound, put in room with no sensation. – Results? – Why do we desire sensory stimulation?
Psychological Needs: Exploration and Manipulation Once people become sufficiently comfortable with their environment they seek stimulation? Do people manipulate and explore their surroundings for their own survival or because they want the stimulation?
Psychological Motivation: Achievement Motivation Achievement Motivation- is what may drive people to tackle challenges and meet high personal standards of success. Performance Goals- specific goals that can measure the success of an individual Learning Goals- learning for learning’s sake. Extrinsic Rewards Intrinsic Rewards
Making things fit Cognitive Consistency- people seek to think and behave in a way that fits what they believe. Boys and girls Conservative and Liberal Religions?
Making Things Fit Balance Theory- people need to organize their thoughts, opinions, and beliefs in a harmonious manner. – Why are your closest friends your best friends. Imbalance- when somebody disagrees with what you care about Nonbalance- when people we do not care about disagrees with us and leaves you feeling indifferent.
Making Things Fit Cognitive-dissonance theory- when people have the motivation to do actions that reflect their beliefs. – Lying – Doing things that don’t reflect your belief
Affiliation Affiliation- the desire to be apart of something larger than oneself – This motivation keeps families, groups and nations together. – Affiliation may be a sign of anxiety Why?
Emotions Emotions are love, anger, sadness, and other states of feeling All emotions are biological, cognitive, and behavioral – Can emotions effect your body?
Happiness Everything we do it to attain of gain happiness in our lives. – True or False? – People who are happier think the world is a happier and safer place – They also make decisions more readily and report greater satisfaction
Anger Anger is a common reaction to insult or attack – Angry people may seek revenge as well – In a study people said in a course of a week they became angry several times a week while others say they became angry several times a day, why? Most people were angry with someone close a friend or a family member that offended them. Best way to handle anger???
Theories of Emotion The Opponent-Process Theory – Emotions often come in pairs, with one emotion being followed by another – Extreme happiness followed by extreme sadness – Anxiety followed by relief
Commonsense Approach When something happens to a person in a certain situation, the person interprets the situation and a bodily function follows. – Chad is walking down the street at night when he suddenly sees Ben walking towards him, he is filled with fear and anxiety and pees his pants………..Ben giggles
More Theories The Cannon-Bard Theory- States that bodily functions and emotions occur at the same time as a result of an internal stimulus. Cognitive Apprasial- The body reacts similar to different emotions