Presentation on theme: "Motivation. Why do you study or not study for tests? Why do you exercise or not exercise? Why do you drive fast or slow? Why do you eat? Why are you attracted."— Presentation transcript:
Why do you study or not study for tests? Why do you exercise or not exercise? Why do you drive fast or slow? Why do you eat? Why are you attracted to who you are attracted to? Why would someone climb a tall mountain? Are you driven by a need to achieve, succeed, and prove something about yourself to the world? What is it that starts your engine and keeps it going? The answer is Motivation
Motivation (our motives)“the whys of behavior” (our motives) –A need or desire (impulse) that energizes and moves behavior towards a goal. Some motivations are obvious while others are very subtle. Some we can see and observe and others we have to infer based on the behavior we can see
Motivation TheoriesInstincts: UNLEARNEDA behavior that is shown throughout a species and is UNLEARNED. Instinct Theory Says behavior is motivated by instincts
Explains some animal behaviors Explains some human behaviors Does not explain other human behaviors The Instinct Theory…
Drive-Reduction Theory We have needs - - leads to a drive to meet them - - because we want balance - - so we act to reduce them basic biological needs (this tension is called a drive)our basic biological needs (food, water, shelter, etc.) create tension when not met (this tension is called a drive) drives (tensions) homeostasisThese drives (tensions) cause us to seek homeostasis (balance) in our bodies (reduce) (drives)So we do activities that will get rid off (reduce) the tension (drives) in our bodies If we skip breakfast, we feel hungry. The need drives us to find food to get rid of the hunger (thus bringing homeostasis) Biological Needs (as for food, water) Drive -tension (hunger, thirst) Drive-reducing Behaviors (eating, drinking) create We crave homeostasis
Drive Reduction Theory –Cont. Primary SecondaryDrives can be either Primary (biological needs like hunger) or Secondary (learned needs like money). DRT However, DRT cannot explain all of our behaviors skydiving…for fun… –Example – skydiving…for fun… instincts (drive) –Does not fit with instincts but it also does not seem to satisfy any basic biological need (drive) So where do these motivations come from??
Arousal Theory arousalSays that we are motivated to seek a level of arousal (excitement) –this arousal drives our behavior –we do not seek homeostasis (balance), but strive for arousal producing activities –People with a need for high levels of arousal will be drawn to exciting behaviors, like jumping out of a plane, while the rest of us are satisfied with less exciting and less risky activities Says all of us have an Optimal Arousal Point
Optimum Arousal Yerkes-Dodson Law –Too much or too little arousal can decrease performance –basically states that there is a level of arousal which helps performance but only to a point Think about getting ready for the SATs –If you are too pumped up, your nervous system kicks in and it is hard to concentrate –If you are not aroused at all, you just won’t put your all in and still will not perform well
Sometimes, behavior is not pushed by instincts, a drive, or an arousal Incentive Theory Rewardsother stimuli – Rewards or other stimuli motivate us to act We learn to associate some stimuli with rewards and others with punishment –most of us are motivated to seek the rewards incentive value or pull –depends on their incentive value or pull
Extrinsic MotivationExtrinsic Motivation – A desire to perform a behavior because of promised rewards or threats of punishment External rewardsExternal rewards – “means to an end” Intrinsic MotivationIntrinsic Motivation – A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective Internal gratificationInternal gratification – “an end in itself” More on this later…
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Motivation Maslow believed that all of our motivation comes from needs and drive to be self-actualized His hierarchy of needs tried to predict which needs we will be motivated to satisfy first Biological needs first (food and water) and then work our way up.
The Range and Diversity of Human Motives Biological Motives Hunger Thirst Sex Temperature Sleep and rest Activity Aggression Social Motives Achievement Affiliation Autonomy Nurture Dominance Exhibition Order Play or fun
Now that we have some sort of understanding of basic motivational theories, let’s examine some of the biggest motivators of our lives… Hunger Sex Achievement