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Motivation Ch 9 PSY 1000. Motivation  Process by which activities are started, directed, and continued  Meets our physical and psychological needs or.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation Ch 9 PSY 1000. Motivation  Process by which activities are started, directed, and continued  Meets our physical and psychological needs or."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation Ch 9 PSY 1000

2 Motivation  Process by which activities are started, directed, and continued  Meets our physical and psychological needs or wants

3 Types of Motivation  Extrinsic Motivation  Perform and action that leads to an outcome outside of self  Work for money  Decreases creativity  Intrinsic Motivation  Perform an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying  Good grades to feel proud  Physical challenges  Becomes ours

4 Approaches to Motivation  Instinct  Biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior  William McDougall proposed 18 instincts for humans  Flight, running away  Aggressiveness  Gathering possessions  Frued Psychoanalytical Theory  Concepts of instincts reside in the id, basic human needs and drives  This theory has faded since it is able to describe the behavior but not explain it

5 Approaches to Motivation  Drive Reduction  Behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drive to satisfy need and reduce tension  Primary Drive  Survival needs of the body such as hunger, thirst  Body is in a state of imbalance  Acquired (secondary) Drive  Learned through experience or conditioning  Money  Social approval  Homeostasis  Body maintains a steady state  Does not explain all human behavior

6 Approaches to Motivation  Arousal  The need for stimulation  Curiosity, playing, exploration  People have an optimal level of tension  Some tasks may have a high level of arousal  Anxiety over a test  Nervous over a first date  Maintaining an optimal level may require increasing or decreasing tension  Sensation Seekers  Need more complex and varied sensory experiences than do others

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8 Approaches to Motivation  Incentive  Things that attract or lure people into action  External stimulus and its rewarding properties  No need  No tension  Expectancy-value Theories  Actions of humans cannot be fully understood without understanding the persons beliefs and values

9 Approaches to Motivation  Humanistic  Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs  Several level of needs to fulfill before a person achieves the highest level of personality fulfillment  Self-actualization the highest level  Person is fully satisfied with all the lower levels in their lives  Seldom reached

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11 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Many management programs are based on this model  Issues  No concrete research or study  Based on Maslow’s observations  Studies of Americans  Cross cultural needs /order of needs may differ

12 Self Determination Theory  Self-Determination theory  Three inborn and universal needs  Help a person gain a complete sense of self and healthy relationships with others 1. Autonomy 1. Need to be in control of one’s own behavior and goals 2. Competence 1. Need to be able to master the challenging tasks of one’s life 3. Relatedness 1. Need to feel a sense of belonging, intimacy, and security in relationships with others

13 Emotions  Feeling aspect of consciousness

14 Physiology of Emotions  When experiencing an emotion  Arousal is created by the sympathetic nervous system  Many emotions have the same physiological response  Heart rate increases  Body temp changes

15 Behavior of Emotions  Facial expressions  Body movements  Actions  Most are culturally universal  Display rules  When the emotion is displayed

16 Subjective Experience: Labeling Emotions  Interpreting the feelings by giving it a label  Anger, sad, happy  Learned response influenced by their language and culture  Goal of psychologists engaged in cross cultural research is to understand the meaning of a persons mental and emotional state without interpreting them incorrectly

17 Theories of Emotion  Original thought of emotions were  Feeling emotion  Behavior that responded to emotion  Event leads to  Arousal leads to  Interpretation or  Emotion or  Reasoning or  Cognitive labels

18 James-Lange Theory  Event Arousal Interpretation Emotion  We will read what our body says and then label the emotion

19 Cannon-Bard Theory  Event Arousal Emotion  Body responds and we label emotion at the same time

20 Schachter-Singer and cognitive Arousal  Event Arousal Cognitive Labels Emotion  Physical arousal and the labeling must occur before the emotion is experienced

21 Facial Feedback Hypothesis  Event Arousal/change of facial expression Emotion  What our facial expression is will go to the brain and the emotion will intensify  Emotion being expressed can cause the emotion  HAPPY

22 Lazarus and the Cognitive-Mediational Theory  Event Interpretation Emotion Arousal  Event causes us to interpret what is going on then we label the emotion and our body responds


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