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1 Instinct theories of motivation are often criticized because: 1.They provide circular explanations of behavior (e.g., a person is aggressive because.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Instinct theories of motivation are often criticized because: 1.They provide circular explanations of behavior (e.g., a person is aggressive because."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Instinct theories of motivation are often criticized because: 1.They provide circular explanations of behavior (e.g., a person is aggressive because they have an aggressive instinct). 2.They do not take into account biological factors involved in motivation. 3.They were only used to account for motivation in animals. 4.They were limited in the types of motivations that they attempted to explain (e.g., sexual, aggressive). 5.They provide a parsimonious explanation of motivating factors behind a wide variety of behaviors. LO 9.2

2 2 Instinct theories of motivation are often criticized because: 1.They provide circular explanations of behavior (e.g., a person is aggressive because they have an aggressive instinct). (p. 337) 2.They do not take into account biological factors involved in motivation. 3.They were only used to account for motivation in animals. 4.They were limited in the types of motivations that they attempted to explain (e.g., sexual, aggressive). 5.They provide a parsimonious explanation of motivating factors behind a wide variety of behaviors. LO 9.2

3 3 According to drive reduction theory, ____________ is the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state, keeping body functions at a balanced level. 1.needs 2.primary drives 3.acquired drives 4.homeostasis 5.motivation LO 9.3

4 4 According to drive reduction theory, ____________ is the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state, keeping body functions at a balanced level. 1.needs 2.primary drives 3.acquired drives 4.homeostasis (p. 338) 5.motivation LO 9.3

5 5 According to Dweck, those who view intelligence with an external locus of control may believe or develop all of the following EXCEPT: 1.Development of learned helplessness 2.Avoid situations in which they might fail 3.Giving up easily due to past failures 4.Belief that intelligence can be altered by one’s own actions and efforts 5.Belief that intelligence is shaped almost entirely by the environment and can be changed LO 9.4

6 6 According to Dweck, those who view intelligence with an external locus of control may believe or develop all of the following EXCEPT: 1.Development of learned helplessness 2.Avoid situations in which they might fail 3.Giving up easily due to past failures 4.Belief that intelligence can be altered by one’s own actions and efforts 5.Belief that intelligence is shaped almost entirely by the environment and can be changed (p ) LO 9.4

7 7 A person who can get along best with others is likely to be high in what type of need? 1.Need for power 2.Need for affiliation 3.Need for achievement 4.Sensation seeking 5.Intrinsic motivation LO 9.4

8 8 A person who can get along best with others is likely to be high in what type of need? 1.Need for power 2.Need for affiliation (p. 340) 3.Need for achievement 4.Sensation seeking 5.Intrinsic motivation LO 9.4

9 9 According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, which of the following conditions will produce optimal task performance? 1.High levels of arousal for difficult tasks 2.Low levels of arousal for easy tasks 3.Moderately high levels of arousal for easy tasks 4.Low levels of arousal for difficult tasks 5.The same moderate levels of arousal for both easy and difficult tasks LO 9.5

10 10 According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, which of the following conditions will produce optimal task performance? 1.High levels of arousal for difficult tasks 2.Low levels of arousal for easy tasks 3.Moderately high levels of arousal for easy tasks (p. 341) 4.Low levels of arousal for difficult tasks 5.The same moderate levels of arousal for both easy and difficult tasks LO 9.5

11 11 The order of needs on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is: 1.Safety, physiological, belongingness, cognitive, self- actualization, aesthetic 2.Belongingness, self-actualization, cognitive, safety, physiological, aesthetic, esteem 3.Physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self- actualization, cognitive, aesthetic 4.Physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization 5.Physiological, safety, esteem, cognitive, belongingness, aesthetic, self-actualization LO 9.7

12 12 The order of needs on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is: 1.Safety, physiological, belongingness, cognitive, self- actualization, aesthetic 2.Belongingness, self-actualization, cognitive, safety, physiological, aesthetic, esteem 3.Physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self- actualization, cognitive, aesthetic 4.Physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization (p. 343) 5.Physiological, safety, esteem, cognitive, belongingness, aesthetic, self-actualization LO 9.7

13 13 One of the major needs according to Deci’s theory of self- determination is: 1.biological needs 2.the need to be in control of one’s behavior and goals (autonomy) 3.the need to feel independent (apart) from others 4.intelligence 5.free emotional expression LO 9.8

14 14 One of the major needs according to Deci’s theory of self- determination is: 1.biological needs 2.the need to be in control of one’s behavior and goals (autonomy) (p ) 3.the need to feel independent (apart) from others 4.intelligence 5.free emotional expression LO 9.8

15 15 A set of parents pay their child each time she cleans up her room (a task she doesn’t enjoy). What do you predict will happen in terms of her interest level on this task? 1.Intrinsic motivation is decreased after giving external reward for a task that is not very interesting. 2.Intrinsic motivation is increased after giving external reward for a task that is not very interesting. 3.The child will offer to clear her room voluntarily in the future. 4.The child will find cleaning her room more satisfying over time, but only if external reward is maintained. 5.The child will find cleaning her room more satisfying over time, even if external reward is not given. LO 9.6

16 16 A set of parents pay their child each time she cleans up her room (a task she doesn’t enjoy). What do you predict will happen in terms of her interest level on this task? 1.Intrinsic motivation is decreased after giving external reward for a task that is not very interesting. (p. 346) 2.Intrinsic motivation is increased after giving external reward for a task that is not very interesting. 3.The child will offer to clear her room voluntarily in the future. 4.The child will find cleaning her room more satisfying over time, but only if external reward is maintained. 5.The child will find cleaning her room more satisfying over time, even if external reward is not given. LO 9.6

17 17 The area of the brain that is responsible for initiating eating behavior, or stimulating feelings of hunger, is called: 1.Lateral hypothalamus 2.Hippocampus 3.Ventromedial hypothalamus 4.Frontal cortex 5.Medulla LO 9.9

18 18 The area of the brain that is responsible for initiating eating behavior, or stimulating feelings of hunger, is called: 1.Lateral hypothalamus (p. 347) 2.Hippocampus 3.Ventromedial hypothalamus 4.Frontal cortex 5.Medulla LO 9.9

19 19 _____________ is a factor known to play a key role in obesity and is involved in signaling to the body that enough food has been ingested. 1.Weight set point 2.Basal metabolic rate 3.Leptin 4.Insulin 5.Glucose LO 9.12

20 20 _____________ is a factor known to play a key role in obesity and is involved in signaling to the body that enough food has been ingested. 1.Weight set point 2.Basal metabolic rate 3.Leptin (p ) 4.Insulin 5.Glucose LO 9.12

21 21 Which of the following is true about the difference in eating behaviors among people from Japan and America? 1.There was a difference in eating behaviors between men from both cultures. 2.Japanese women were more likely to eat for emotional reasons. 3.Men and women from Japan were more likely to eat while watching TV or movies. 4.American women were more likely to eat for emotional reasons. 5.American women were more likely to eat due to social demands. LO 9.10

22 22 Which of the following is true about the difference in eating behaviors among people from Japan and America? 1.There was a difference in eating behaviors between men from both cultures. 2.Japanese women were more likely to eat for emotional reasons. 3.Men and women from Japan were more likely to eat while watching TV or movies. 4.American women were more likely to eat for emotional reasons. (p ) 5.American women were more likely to eat due to social demands. LO 9.10

23 23 All of the following are characteristics of a person suffering from anorexia nervosa EXCEPT: 1.It may be caused by a rejection of sexual maturity. 2.It is more characteristic of a person with a perfectionist attitude. 3.It involves cycles of binging and purging. 4.It can lead to irregular heart beat and abnormal hormone secretion. 5.It is often caused by a distorted sense of body image. LO 9.11

24 24 All of the following are characteristics of a person suffering from anorexia nervosa EXCEPT: 1.It may be caused by a rejection of sexual maturity. 2.It is more characteristic of a person with a perfectionist attitude. 3.It involves cycles of binging and purging. (p ) 4.It can lead to irregular heart beat and abnormal hormone secretion. 5.It is often caused by a distorted sense of body image. LO 9.11

25 25 A person experiences increased heart rate and respiration in response to seeing a snake and interprets these sympathetic nervous system responses as fear. What component of emotion does this best represent? 1.Behavioral 2.Physiological 3.Subjective 4.Biological 5.Objective LO 9.13

26 26 A person experiences increased heart rate and respiration in response to seeing a snake and interprets these sympathetic nervous system responses as fear. What component of emotion does this best represent? 1.Behavioral 2.Physiological 3.Subjective (p. 356) 4.Biological 5.Objective LO 9.13

27 27 The idea that the experience of emotion (e.g., sadness) and the bodily reactions associated with the emotion (e.g., lower body temperature) occur at the same time is predicted by which theory of emotion? 1.Facial feedback 2.James Lange 3.Cannon Bard 4.Cognitive arousal 5.Cognitive mediational LO 9.15

28 28 The idea that the experience of emotion (e.g., sadness) and the bodily reactions associated with the emotion (e.g., lower body temperature) occur at the same time is predicted by which theory of emotion? 1.Facial feedback 2.James Lange 3.Cannon Bard (p ) 4.Cognitive arousal 5.Cognitive mediational LO 9.15

29 29 Which theory predicts that a person can experience very different emotions (e.g., anger vs. happiness) from the same source of physiological arousal (e.g., a drug such as cocaine)? 1.Cannon Bard 2.James Lange 3.Facial feedback 4.Cognitive arousal 5.Cognitive mediational LO 9.16

30 30 Which theory predicts that a person can experience very different emotions (e.g., anger vs. happiness) from the same source of physiological arousal (e.g., a drug such as cocaine)? 1.Cannon Bard 2.James Lange 3.Facial feedback 4.Cognitive arousal (p. 358) 5.Cognitive mediational LO 9.16

31 31 The idea that we are angry because we frown would be predicted by which theory of emotion? 1.Facial feedback 2.Cognitive arousal 3.Cannon Bard 4.James Lange 5.Cognitive mediational LO 9.18

32 32 The idea that we are angry because we frown would be predicted by which theory of emotion? 1.Facial feedback (p ) 2.Cognitive arousal 3.Cannon Bard 4.James Lange 5.Cognitive mediational LO 9.18


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