5 12.1 Theories of Motivation 4 Theories to Motivation1. Instinct Theory2. Drive- Reduction3. Incentive Theory4. Cognitive Theory
6 Instinct Theory states that motivation is the result of biological, genetic programming Explains some animal behaviorsExplains some human behaviors, we eat when we are hungry.At the heart of this perspective, is the motivation to survive - we are biologically programmed to survive.
7 Drive-Reduction Theory The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.The need is usually to maintain homeostasis.For example, we reduce the NEED to eat by eating.
8 Incentive TheoryAn incentive may be defined as an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior. This does not mean that it will always motivate behavior, only that it can.
9 Arousal Theory Sometimes we do not seek homeostasis. Sometimes we seek arousal.Our needs go beyond reducing drives.
10 Drive-Reduction Theory We are not only pushed by our needs but.…Pulled by our incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
11 Maslow’s Definition of a Self-actualized Person Has no mental illnessSatisfied in basic needsFully exploited talentsMotivated by values
12 MOST NEEDS HAVE TO DO WITH SURVIVAL PHYSICALLY AND Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMOST NEEDS HAVE TO DO WITHSURVIVAL PHYSICALLY ANDPSYCHOLOGICALLYPHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS5
13 ON THE WHOLE AN INDIVIDUAL CANNOT SATISFY ANY LEVEL Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsON THE WHOLE AN INDIVIDUALCANNOT SATISFY ANY LEVELUNLESS NEEDS BELOW ARESATISFIEDSAFETY NEEDSPHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS
14 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs LOVE, AFFECTION, ANDBELONGINGNESS NEEDSSAFETY NEEDSPHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS7
15 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ESTEEM NEEDSLOVE, AFFECTION, ANDBELONGINGNESS NEEDSSAFETY NEEDSPHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS8
16 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SELF-ACTUALIZATIONESTEEM NEEDSLOVE, AFFECTION, ANDBELONGINGNESS NEEDSSAFETY NEEDSPHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS11
17 MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIME Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsNEEDFORSELF-ACTUALIZATIONMASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELFACTUALIZATION ISA HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIMEMOTIVATION9
18 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs FORSELF-ACTUALIZATIONMASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELFACTUALIZATION ISA HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIMEMOTIVATIONSELF-ACTUALIZATION MEANS ACTUALIZINGONE’S POTENTIAL BECOMING ALL ONE ISCAPABLE OF BECOMING10
19 Douglas McGregor, Theories of X and Y T H E O R YT H E O R YXY
20 Theory XAssumes that works are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money.Must never be trusted and always be watched.To work more, they must be given money.
21 Theory XTheory X assumes people dislike work and do whatever they can to avoid it. This leads to the following:Because people hate work, they have to be forced, threatened or bribed before they will work hard enough.People like to be ordered about, they seek security in authority and go out of their way to avoid taking on responsibility.Money is the main motivating force. Issues to do with personal security come second.The only creativity most people display is when it comes to avoiding work or finding ways of getting around management edicts.
22 Theory YAssumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.
23 Theory YPeople are generally happy to direct themselves towards any acceptable goal or target.Self-discipline is more effective and, in some cases, more severe than any external direction. Under the right conditions people will seek out and accept responsibility.Once certain basic needs are met, people are more likely to be motivated by their internal need to realize their full potential than any base incentive.Everyone is basically creative and capable of intelligence, most of the time these qualities are underused
24 two-factor theory, proposed by Frederick Herzberg He also surmised that it is the work itself and what people get out of it, rather than factors such as pay and physical working conditions, that determines job satisfaction.
25 Intrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
26 Extrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
28 INTRINSIC vs. EXTRINSIC A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective.A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.Why are you in AP Psych?InterestingCuriosityCompetentWhy are you in AP Psych?Parents.Need the credit.Save money in college.
30 Hunger is both physiological and psychological.
31 Physiology of HungerWashburn’s studies showed hunger was partially related to the stomach.But those with their stomachs removed still feel hunger.
32 Body Chemistry Glucose The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat. When glucose levels drop- hunger increases.
33 The Brain In the 1960’s it was discovered that hunger comes from……….. The Hypothalamus
34 The Hypothalamus & Hunger Along the sides of the hypothalamus is the lateral hypothalamus: which brings on hunger.Stimulate the lateral hypothalamus and even a well fed animal will begin to eat.Lesion the lateral hypothalamus and a starving animal will have no interest in food.
35 The Hypothalamus and Hunger Along the lower middle section of the hypothalamus is the ventromedial hypothalamus: which depresses hunger.Stimulate the ventromedial hypothalamus and the animal will stop eatingLesion the ventromedial hypothalamus the animal will continuously want to eat.
36 How does the hypothalamus work? Two TheoriesSet PointHypothalamus acts like a thermostat.We are meant to be in a certain weight range.When we fall below weight our body will increase hunger and decrease energy expenditure (Basic Metabolic Rate).What happens if we go above our set point?LeptinLeptin is a protein produced by bloated fat cells.Hypothalamus senses rises in leptin and will curb eating and increase activity.Can leptin injections help me?
37 The Psychology of Hunger Externals: people whose eating is triggered more by the presence of food than internal factors.
38 Taste PreferencesFood taste better and we chew less when we are hungry (beginning of a meal).Food tastes worse and we chew more when we are not hungry (at the end of the meal).Its weird, the better the food tastes, the less time we leave it in our mouths.