3 Common Sense Theory Emotion-arousing stimulus leads to a Conscious feeling (fear, anger) and aPhysiological response.Emotional BehaviorSeeing an angry dog triggers feelings of fear and physical responses such as trembling and behavior like running.
4 Common-Sense TheoryPerception(Interpretationof stimulus—danger)Stimulus(Tiger)Emotion(Fear)Bodilyarousal(Poundingheart) & FearfulBehaviorCommon sense might suggest that the perception of a stimulus triggers emotion which then causes bodily arousal
5 Debates in Emotion Research Which comes first, physiological arousal or the subjective experience of an emotion?Can we react emotionally before appraising a situation, or does thinking always precede emotion?
6 James-Lange Theory Opposite of the Common Sense Theory An emotion-arousing stimulus in the environment triggers a physiological reaction and behavior.Our awareness of the physiological reaction leads to our experience of an emotion.James believed that emotion followed this sequence:We perceive a stimulus.Physiological and behavioral changes occur.We experience a particular emotion.
7 Perception of a stimulus causes bodily arousal which leads to emotion (Interpretationof stimulus--danger)Stimulus(Tiger)Emotion(Fear)Bodilyarousal(Poundingheart) & FearfulBehaviorJames’s TheoryPerception of a stimulus causes bodily arousal which leads to emotionWe do not run from a tiger because we are afraid. We are afraid because we ran from the tiger.The relationship is See the tiger, Run from tiger, Experience fearKeywords: Peripheral feedback theory, James
12 Walter B. Cannon challenged the James–Lange theory Body reactions similar for most emotionsHeart races whether we’re frightened, angry or exhilaratedEmotional reaction to a stimulus is often faster than our physiological reaction . I’m scared then I trembleArtificially inducing physiological changes via adrenaline did not necessarily produce a related emotional experienceYou peel an onion & cry yet you don’t feel sadJames had proposed that if a person were cut off from feeling bodily changes, he would not experience true emotions.Studies of people with spinal cord injuries and cats with disabled sympathetic N.S. do not support James’ idea - They still respond emotionally to a stimulus.
13 Cannon-Bard TheoryAn emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both a…physiological response (sympathetic nervous system) andthe experience of an emotion (brain’s cerebral cortex).
18 Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory Emotions involve two factors:A physiological arousalA cognitive/conscious label of the arousalStudy using epinephrine and a humorous or irritating situation showed that those who did NOT know their physiological responses (increased heart beat) was caused by a shot rated their emotions as more intense than those who knew (Spillover Effect)
19 Schachter’s Cognition-Plus-Feedback Theory TypeIntensityEmotion(Fear)Perception(Interpretationof stimulus--danger)Stimulus(Tiger)Bodilyarousal(Poundingheart)Perception and thought about a stimulus influence the type of emotion feltDegree of bodily arousal influences the intensity of emotion feltKeywords: Cognition-plus-feedback theory, Schachter
20 Two-Factor TheoryEmotion results from physiological arousal plus a cognitive label for that arousal
25 Richard Lazarus (1922-2002) Cognitive-Mediational Theory Emotions result from the cognitive appraisal of a situation’s effect on personal well-being (done automatically by mind)All other components of emotion, including physiological arousal, follow the initial cognitive appraisalIntense emotions come from situations whose outcomes are important to us.Critics argue emotional reactions to a stimulus or event are virtually instantaneous—too rapid to allow for the process of cognitive appraisal. They suggest that we feel first and think later.
27 Cognitive-Mediational Theory 2. I think he’s a mugger!3. I’m afraid (heart beating) & will run away.I see a man by the parked car.I hear & recognize his voice.I know him and am not afraidI see a man by the parked car.I think he’s a mugger.I’m afraid and will run away.ORYour emotion depends on your cognitive appraisal or interpretation of the situation & the perceived outcome of it
28 Lazarus Cognitive-Mediational Theory Cognitive Label“This is a dangerous situation!”Pounding Heart(arousal)Fear(emotion)
29 Schachter-Singer Two Factor Cognitive-Mediational James-LangeCannon-BardSchachter-Singer Two FactorCognitive-Mediational2. I think he’s a mugger!3. I’m afraid (heart beating) & will run away.I see a man by the parked car.I hear & recognize his voice.I know him and am not afraid
30 Cognitive Mediational Theory Mnemonics to Help You RememberJames-Lange TheoryJoke – Laugh – Thrilled!think JAE which stands for "James Arousal Emotion"Cannon-Bard TheorySay the two Ns in Cannon simultaneously just like you experience arousal and emotionCannon=Causes, Bard=Both; so it would be the "Causes Both Theory" because the theory says that the physiological response and experience of emotion happen at the same time, or "the Cause stimulates Both at the same time.Schachter-SingerTwo Factor Theory"All Clowns Love, Elephants" which stands for arousal cognitive label and emotion, the comma makes you pause so that emotion is after arousal and cognitive label.Cognitive Mediational Theory
31 Robert Zajonc (1923-2008) We feel first, think later. Argued emotions developed first then cognition in the history of human developmentSuggested that not all emotions involve deliberate thinkingTherefore, cognition/conscious awareness of what is happening is not necessary for all emotionsSome emotions skip the thinking part of the brain
33 Modern Research Supports And the Winner is…Modern Research Supports
34 James–Lange TheoryAntonio Damasio’s findings—that each basic emotion produced a distinct pattern or neural response and that the physiological changes occurred before they were interpreted as an emotion—support the theorySupport is also provided by research on the facial feedback hypothesis—the view that expressing a specific emotion, especially facially, causes the subjective experience of that emotionWhen people mimic the facial expressions characteristic of a given emotion, they tend to report feeling that emotion.The basic explanation for this is that the facial muscles send feedback signals to the brain, which uses the information to activate and regulate emotional experience.