Objectives: Define the major problems facing the nation and the South after the Civil War. Describe the responses of both whites and African Americans to the end of slavery. Analyze the differences between the presidential and congressional approaches to Reconstruction. Explain how the blunders of President Johnson and the resistance of the white South opened the door to the Republicans’ radical Reconstruction AP Focus The Union victory is significant in transforming and diversifying the South’s production. It also represents the defeat of the planter- slaveholder and the continued rise of the industrial capitalist. In the aftermath of the war, especially in those southern states that reenter the Union under Johnson’s lenient plan, Black Codes again segregate and subordinate the South’s blacks. Organizations, such as the Ku Klux Klan and the Knights of the White Camellia, use violence and intimidation to deny blacks access to institutions, such as voting, that would improve their lives. Blacks are reduced to a form of slavery without chains, in that they are economically dependent and subservient to the owner of the land on which they are sharecroppers.
CHAPTER THEMES Johnson’s political blunders and Southern white recalcitrance led to the imposition of congressional military Reconstruction on the South. Reconstruction did address difficult issues of reform and racial justice in the South and achieved some successes, but was ultimately abandoned, leaving a deep legacy of racial and sectional bitterness. During Reconstruction, the Constitution was strengthened with the Fourteenth (citizenship and equal protection of the laws) and Fifteenth (black voting rights) Amendments, but it was also tested with the conflicts between the president and Congress that culminated in an impeachment process.
Decades Chart 1860’s-Due on Wednesday Quiz on Friday over Chapter 22
1. How would the South be rebuilt? 2. How would liberated blacks fare as free men and women? 3. How would the Southern states be reintegrated into the Union? 4. Who would direct the process of Reconstruction? 5. What should happen to the Confederate leaders? Slave-owners lost some $2 billion in slaves “damn yankees”, “your government”
Emancipation followed the Union Army. Slaves were freed then re-enslaved, then freed, then re-enslaved Some displayed loyalty to plantation, others pillaged African-American churches doubled in size after Emancipation Whole communities moved together- Exodusters Education key to freedom-Education societies
Created on March 3, 1865 to address the transition to freedom Provide: 1. food 2. Clothing 3. Medical care 4. Education-blacks/white refugees Not all good-some collaborated with planters in removing blacks from towns or signing labor contracts with former masters
Came from humble beginnings Served in the House and refused to secede when Tennessee did Supporter of states’ rights
Lincoln’s 10% plan a state could be re-admitted when 10% of its voters from the 1860 Presidential election took an oath of allegiance to the U.S. creation of a formal state government Congress in 1865 Wade-Davis Bill: 50% needed to take the oath Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill in 1864 Johnson’s plan disfranchised Confederates with taxable property more than $20,000-except for pardons repeal ordinances of secession repudiate Confederate debt ratify 13 th amendment
Black codes-regulated the affairs of the emancipated blacks Created the share-cropping class of emancipated blacks and landless whites African-Americans not allowed to 1. Serve on a jury 2. Rent/own land 3. Punished for idleness The North looked down on the South for this reaction
Many ex-Confederates won state elections as senators and representatives The North enjoyed free reign during the war Morrill Tariff, Pacific Railroad Act, Homestead Act With newly freed slaves, the South population was about to explode and increase their power Johnson claims southern states met readmission conditions on Dec 6, 1865
Johnson vetoed and Congress overrode the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 which granted citizenship to freed slaves 14 th Amendment 1. Civil Rights/Citizenship 2. reduced representation if a state denied African-Americans the right to vote 3. disqualified former Confederates as federal office-holders 4. guaranteed federal debt/repudiated Confederate debt
Johnson’s lack of vote-getting in the mid- terms of 1866 resulted in a 2/3 majority for the Republicans in both houses of Congress
Charles Sumner-led radicals in the Senate Thaddeus Stevens-led radicals in the House Radical Republicans keep Southern states out as long as possible use federal power Moderate Republicans restrain states from denying citizens’ rights limited federal authority had the upper hand
Congressional Reconstruction Act-March 2, 1867 5 military districts in the South disfranchised former Confederates Readmission ratify 14 th amendment state guarantee of full suffrage to blacks 15 th amendment Women Rights were not addressed at this time Elizabeth Cady Stanton/Susan B. Anthony not supportive of the 14 th /15 th amendment Scalawags-former Unionists/Whigs that were corrupt Carpetbaggers-northerners seeking power in the South politically or economically or both
1. How would the South be rebuilt? 2. How would liberated blacks fare as free men and women? 3. How would the Southern states be reintegrated into the Union? 4. Who would direct the process of Reconstruction? 5. What should happen to the Confederate leaders?