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The American Promise: A History of the United States Fourth Edition CHAPTER 16 Reconstruction 1863–1877.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Promise: A History of the United States Fourth Edition CHAPTER 16 Reconstruction 1863–1877."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Promise: A History of the United States Fourth Edition CHAPTER 16 Reconstruction 1863–1877

2 Wartime Reconstruction “To Bind Up the Nation’s Wounds” –Lincoln’s plan – Proclamation of Amnesty –Wade-Davis Bill & Lincoln’s veto –Lincoln’s endorsement of suffrage for African Americans Land and Labor –Slavery to paid labor or free labor –Labor organization and use of land of former slaveholders –Labor contracts and planters –Sherman’s suggestion for black settlement in Charleston –Freedman’s Bureau –Results of wartime reconstruction – no agreement between president and Congress about policies The African American Quest for Autonomy –African Americans wanted rights denied

3 –White fear of African American reactions and behavior –Freedmen worked toward economic & religious independence, literacy, and family reunion. Presidential Reconstruction Johnson’s Program of Reconciliation –Defender of slavery but held planter class responsible –Continuation of Lincoln’s plan with mild changes –Normalization of relations with southern states – authorized return of confiscated lands from ex-Confederates and pardoned them

4 White Southern Resistance and Black Codes –New constitution in southern states –Fear that northerners would shape reconstruction –Subordination of African Americans – no objection from President Johnson –Former Confederates in office (1865 elections) Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights –Moderate Republicans distrustful of ex-Confederates did not support President Johnson –Moderate Republicans wanted extension of Freedmen’s Bureau – Johnson vetoed bill –Civil Rights Act to nullify Black Codes – vetoed by Johnson but overridden by Congress –Another bill to extend Freedman’s Bureau – vetoed by Johnson but overridden by Congress

5 Congressional Reconstruction The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating Violence – th Amendment ratified – all native-Born and naturalized Americans to be citizens –Congressional delegation reduced for stated that withheld suffrage – Republicans stood to gain – women left out –Johnson hated the amendment and joined white opponents to form National Union Party –Stiff opposition to Johnson in southern states – Republican victory in 1866 elections Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule –All southern states other than Tennessee voted down 14 th Amendment –Military Reconstruction Act (1867) vetoed by Johnson overridden by Congress

6 Congressional Reconstruction Impeaching a President –Violation of Office of Tenure Act –Impeachment proceedings – impeachment fell short by one vote –Congressional reconstruction proceeded unhindered for the last ten months of his term The Fifteenth Amendment and Women’s Demands –Women deprived citizenship – women, especially suffragists unhappy with the move

7 The Struggle in the South Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen –After 1867 Republican party had many African American members, white southerners and those who moved to the South –“White terror” and the formation of the Ku Klux Klan Republican Rule –Republican majorities in southern states –Focused on education, civil rights, and economic development –Ambitious agenda but limited success due to corruption White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers –Sharecropping, a compromise for ex-slaves and ex-masters –New figure in the equation – country merchant

8 A Southern Plantation in 1860 and 1881

9 The Election of 1868

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11 Reconstruction Collapses Grant’s Troubled Presidency – Wanted to forge policy to secure sectional reconciliation and justice for African Americans –Corruption and opposition but won reelection Northern Resolve Withers –Ku Klux Act of 1871 and Civil Rights Act of 1875 –Otherwise abandonment of reconstruction White Supremacy Triumphs –Issue of race brings Democrats to power in southern states –Democrats blamed Republicans for southern economic woes – intimidated African American politicians and voters An Election and a Compromise –Tilden-Hayes tie based on some questionable electoral college votes – Compromise of 1877 and end of reconstruction

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