Presentation on theme: "World War I Chapter 18. Causes of WWI Imperialism Race for colonies. Africa was last place for Germany to compete. Militarism Policy involves."— Presentation transcript:
World War I Chapter 18
Causes of WWI Imperialism Race for colonies. Africa was last place for Germany to compete. Militarism Policy involves the build up of a nations armed forces and giving the military more control over the government and foreign policy. Nationalism Great Powers own interest. German region of Alsace- Lorraine conquered in 1871 Diverse Ethnic Interests. Assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand June 28, 1914
Causes of WWI System of Alliances Germany-Austria Hungry Austria Hungry declared war on Serbia as retaliation of Arch Duke’s assassination. Russia-Serbia Russia-France Belgium International treaty protected neutrality. France-Great Britain Entente Cordiale, loose alliance
Schlieffen Plan Germany’s first strike strategy used to fight war on two fronts. Attack full force against France in the west, holding line against Russia in the east. Germany pushed through Belgium en route to France, violating international law, causing Great Britain to declare war on Germany. Germany advanced as close as 30 miles from Paris when it had to pull soilders to protect eastern front from Russian army.
Central Powers v. Allies Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungry Ottoman Empire-1914 Bulgaria-1915 Triple Entente France Great Britain Russia Serbia Italy-1915 Romania-1916 United States-1917
United States Neutrality Immigration 1\3 of American population were immigrants (33 million) 25% were German and 13% were Irish. Public sentiment were for Britain due to early colonization of America Kaiser Wilhelm II Ruler viewed as autrocratic by American people. American Investments 3.5 billion in overseas investments by 1914
America enters WWI Naval strategy German U-boats U-boats would surface and give crew opportunity to deboard and then sink ship 1915 sinking of the Lusitania 128 Americans among 1200 passengers dead. Ship carried war supplies for Allies. 1916 sinking of the Sussex 2 Americans among 80 dead.
America enters WWI The Sussex Pledge German governments pledge to warn all boats prior to sinking. The Zimmermann Note Arthur Zimmermann, Germany’s foreign secretary, asked Mexico to declare war on the United States. Mexico could not declare war due to own civil war during this time.
American Mobilization to WWI America sends token force of 14K men to front and $3 billion in war loans. Selective Service Act of first draft. 24 mill. Men registered and 3 mill. drafted American Expeditionary Force Creation of national training academies to teach art of warfare. Use of convoys to combat U- boats. Lever Food and Fuel Control Act Price Controls, food rationing and daylight savings time. 1917 Espionage Act made it illegal to interfere with the draft.
Warfare Bolshevick Revolution-1917 Vladimir Lenin overthrew Russian government with help from Germans. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk declared peace with Germany allowing for Germans to fight a one front war. Trench warfare Mustard gas Over the top No man’s land Trench foot Technology Armored tanks Dogfights German Zeppelins Genocide Armenians were systematically destroyed by Ottoman Empire on grounds of disloyalty.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Designed by Woodrow Wilson to energize the American people, encourage the Russian people to stay in WWI, and encourage enemy states to join a peaceful resolution to the war. Served as negotiations of peace treaty ending World War I.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points End to Secret diplomacy Freedom of the seas. Reduction in arms. Removal of economic barriers- free trade. Ending of colonial claims. Creation of League of Nations. Organization to ensure safety of the World. Article 10 Evacuation of Russia and Belgium. Alsace-Lorraine returned to France. Italy shall be reorganized under nationality lines. Countries established for Polish, Turkey, Serbia, Montenegro, Rumania. Nations formed with guarantees for political integrity no matter how big or small.
Treaty of Versailles Great Britain, US, France and Italy negotiated peace treaty with Germany. Negotiated only after Kaiser Wilhelm II formally left office and new govt. Installed in Germany. League of Nations organized. France insisted on Germany to admit guilt for war and pay over $33 billion in reparations. Broke Germany into nine new nations. Originally Germany refused to sign saying it violated Wilson’s Fourteen Points but capitulated when threatened with French invasion.