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World War I Chapter 18. Causes of WWI  Imperialism  Race for colonies.  Africa was last place for Germany to compete.  Militarism  Policy involves.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I Chapter 18. Causes of WWI  Imperialism  Race for colonies.  Africa was last place for Germany to compete.  Militarism  Policy involves."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I Chapter 18

2 Causes of WWI  Imperialism  Race for colonies.  Africa was last place for Germany to compete.  Militarism  Policy involves the build up of a nations armed forces and giving the military more control over the government and foreign policy.  Nationalism  Great Powers own interest.  German region of Alsace- Lorraine conquered in 1871  Diverse Ethnic Interests.  Assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand  June 28, 1914

3 Causes of WWI  System of Alliances  Germany-Austria Hungry  Austria Hungry declared war on Serbia as retaliation of Arch Duke’s assassination.  Russia-Serbia  Russia-France  Belgium  International treaty protected neutrality.  France-Great Britain  Entente Cordiale, loose alliance

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5 Schlieffen Plan  Germany’s first strike strategy used to fight war on two fronts.  Attack full force against France in the west, holding line against Russia in the east.  Germany pushed through Belgium en route to France, violating international law, causing Great Britain to declare war on Germany.  Germany advanced as close as 30 miles from Paris when it had to pull soilders to protect eastern front from Russian army.

6 Schlieffen Plan

7 Central Powers v. Allies  Triple Alliance  Germany  Austria-Hungry  Ottoman Empire-1914  Bulgaria-1915  Triple Entente  France  Great Britain  Russia  Serbia  Italy-1915  Romania-1916  United States-1917

8 United States Neutrality  Immigration  1\3 of American population were immigrants (33 million)  25% were German and 13% were Irish.  Public sentiment were for Britain due to early colonization of America  Kaiser Wilhelm II  Ruler viewed as autrocratic by American people.  American Investments  3.5 billion in overseas investments by 1914

9 America enters WWI  Naval strategy  German U-boats  U-boats would surface and give crew opportunity to deboard and then sink ship  1915 sinking of the Lusitania  128 Americans among 1200 passengers dead. Ship carried war supplies for Allies.  1916 sinking of the Sussex  2 Americans among 80 dead.

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11 America enters WWI  The Sussex Pledge  German governments pledge to warn all boats prior to sinking.  The Zimmermann Note  Arthur Zimmermann, Germany’s foreign secretary, asked Mexico to declare war on the United States.  Mexico could not declare war due to own civil war during this time.

12 American Mobilization to WWI  America sends token force of 14K men to front and $3 billion in war loans.  Selective Service Act of first draft.  24 mill. Men registered and 3 mill. drafted  American Expeditionary Force  Creation of national training academies to teach art of warfare.  Use of convoys to combat U- boats.  Lever Food and Fuel Control Act  Price Controls, food rationing and daylight savings time.  1917 Espionage Act made it illegal to interfere with the draft.

13 Warfare  Bolshevick Revolution-1917  Vladimir Lenin overthrew Russian government with help from Germans.  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk  declared peace with Germany allowing for Germans to fight a one front war.  Trench warfare  Mustard gas  Over the top  No man’s land  Trench foot  Technology  Armored tanks  Dogfights  German Zeppelins  Genocide  Armenians were systematically destroyed by Ottoman Empire on grounds of disloyalty.

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17 Trench Foot

18 Wilson’s Fourteen Points  Designed by Woodrow Wilson to energize the American people, encourage the Russian people to stay in WWI, and encourage enemy states to join a peaceful resolution to the war.  Served as negotiations of peace treaty ending World War I.

19 Wilson’s Fourteen Points  End to Secret diplomacy  Freedom of the seas.  Reduction in arms.  Removal of economic barriers- free trade.  Ending of colonial claims.  Creation of League of Nations.  Organization to ensure safety of the World.  Article 10  Evacuation of Russia and Belgium.  Alsace-Lorraine returned to France.  Italy shall be reorganized under nationality lines.  Countries established for Polish, Turkey, Serbia, Montenegro, Rumania.  Nations formed with guarantees for political integrity no matter how big or small.

20 Treaty of Versailles  Great Britain, US, France and Italy negotiated peace treaty with Germany.  Negotiated only after Kaiser Wilhelm II formally left office and new govt. Installed in Germany.  League of Nations organized.  France insisted on Germany to admit guilt for war and pay over $33 billion in reparations.  Broke Germany into nine new nations.  Originally Germany refused to sign saying it violated Wilson’s Fourteen Points but capitulated when threatened with French invasion.


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