Presentation on theme: "Unit II- Becoming a World Power Chapter 8 Section 4 Peace Without Victory."— Presentation transcript:
Unit II- Becoming a World Power Chapter 8 Section 4 Peace Without Victory
The Main Idea The Allies determined the terms for peace in the postwar world. Reading Focus What was President Wilson’s Fourteen Points plan for peace? What was resolved at the Paris Peace Conference? Why did Congress fight over the treaty? What was the impact of World War I on the United States and the world? Peace without Victory
The Fourteen Points In a speech to Congress before the war ended, President Wilson outlined a vision of a “just and lasting peace.” His plan was called the Fourteen Points, and among its ideas were — — Open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, the removal of trade barriers, and the reduction of military arms — — A fair system to resolve disputes over colonies — — Self-determination, or the right of people to decide their own political status and form their own nations — — Establishing a League of Nations, or an organization of countries working together to settle disputes, protect democracy, and prevent future wars The Fourteen Points expressed a new philosophy that applied progressivism to U.S. foreign policy. The Fourteen Points declared that foreign policy should be based on morality, not just on what’s best for the nation.
The Peace Conference in Paris 1919 Wilson Wilson 14 points- Wilson’s only purpose at the conference. 14 points- Wilson’s only purpose at the conference. Others were critical of Wilson- called him the Preacher of the world. To worried about all of mankind. God only has 10 commandments. Others were critical of Wilson- called him the Preacher of the world. To worried about all of mankind. God only has 10 commandments. Mistake- Wilson didn’t chose any Republicans or Senators to be on the American Peace Commission. Mistake- Wilson didn’t chose any Republicans or Senators to be on the American Peace Commission. The Big Four Prime Minister Lloyd George of Great Britain Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy Premier Georges Clemenceau of France President Woodrow Wilson of the U.S. The other three powers wanted as much land, wealth, and power for their countries as possible. The other three powers wanted German repayment for cost of war. The other three powers wanted to punish the enemies so they could never rise again.
The Fourteen Points What was President Wilson’s Fourteen Points plan for peace? What was President Wilson’s Fourteen Points plan for peace? What principles of progressivism inspired President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points? What principles of progressivism inspired President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points? Why do you think Wilson abandoned the idea of isolationism in favor of the new philosophy for U.S. foreign policy expressed in the Fourteen Points? Why do you think Wilson abandoned the idea of isolationism in favor of the new philosophy for U.S. foreign policy expressed in the Fourteen Points?
The Paris Peace Conference President Wilson led American negotiators attending the peace conference in Paris in January 1919. – – His attendance of the Paris Peace Conference made him the first U.S. President to visit Europe while in office. – – Republicans criticized Wilson for leaving the country when it was trying to restore its economy. Wilson’s dream of international peace, though, required him to attend the conference as a fair and unbiased leader to prevent squabbling among European nations. The Paris Peace Conference began on January 12, 1919, with leaders representing 32 nations, or about three-quarters of the world’s population. The leaders of the victorious Allies—President Wilson, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando—became known as the Big Four. Germany and the Central Powers were not invited to attend.
Revenge Many Allies wanted to punish Germany for its role in the war. Georges Clemenceau accused Germany of tyrannical conduct, exemplified by the huge loss of life and the continued suffering of veterans. Conflicting Needs at the Peace Conference Independence Leaders of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia wanted to build new nations. Poland, divided between Germany and Russia, wanted one nation. Ho Chi Minh worked at the Paris Ritz hotel and asked France to free Vietnam. The delegates arrived at the Peace Conference with competing needs and desires. Better World President Wilson had a vision of a better world. He wanted nations to deal with each other openly and trade with each other fairly. Wanted countries to reduce their arsenal of weapons
The Treaty of Versailles The Allies eventually reached an agreement and presented the Treaty of Versailles to Germany in May. The treaty was harsher than Wilson wanted, requiring Germany to Disarm its military forces Pay $33 billion in reparations, or payments for damages and expenses caused by the war, which Germany could not afford Take sole responsibility for starting the war The Central Powers also had to turn over their colonies to the Allies, to stay under Allied control until they could become independent. The treaty included some of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, such as the creation of a League of Nations and self-determination for some ethnic groups in Eastern and Central Europe. Germany strongly protested the treaty but signed it after France threatened military action.
Versailles Treaty The Treaty ended up being not as selfish, vengeful or as noble as everyone had wanted. The main terms of the Versailles Treaty were: (1) the surrender of all German colonies as League of Nations mandates; (2) the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France; (3) cession of Eupen-Malmedy to Belgium, Memel to Lithuania, the Hultschin district to Czechoslovakia, (4) Poznania, parts of East Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland; (5) Danzig to become a free city; (6) plebiscites to be held in northern Schleswig to settle the Danish-German frontier; (7) occupation and special status for the Saar under French control (8) demilitarization and a fifteen-year occupation of the Rhineland; 9) German reparations of £6,600 million; (10) a ban on the union of Germany and Austria; (11) an acceptance of Germany's guilt in causing the war; (11) provision for the trial of the former Kaiser and other war leaders; The Big Four (12) limitation of Germany's army to 100,000 men with no conscription, no tanks, no heavy artillery, no poison-gas supplies, no aircraft and no airships; (13) the limitation of the German Navy to vessels under 100,000 tons, with no submarines;
REPARATIONS- Most poisonous provision of treaty. Payments from Germans to “repair” all war damage. British and French felt damages should include the total costs of war (everything). Sum so huge it could not be named, and the Germans would be paying for ever. Germany signed the Versailles Treaty under protest. The USA Congress refused to ratify the treaty. Many people in France and Britain were angry that there was no trial of the Kaiser or the other war leaders
Peace, Diplomacy, and Reparation (06:51)
League of Nations The League of Nations was an international organization created after the First World War. The Covenant establishing the League was part of the Treaty of Versailles. The aims of the League were to promote international co- operation and to achieve international peace and security. The League of Nations was an association of states which had pledged themselves, through signing the Covenant not to go to war before submitting their disputes with each other, or states not members of the League, to arbitration or enquiry. The League of Nations formally came into existence on January 10, 1920. The two official languages of the League were English and French. The headquarters of the League was Geneva, Switzerland. The main organs of the League of Nations were the General Assembly, the Council and the Secretariat. The Council included four permanent members (Britain, France, Italy and Japan) and four (later nine) others elected by the General Assembly every three years. Armillary sphere, a symbol of the League of Nations,
Paris Peace Conference What was resolved at the Paris Peace Conference? What was resolved at the Paris Peace Conference? What was Wilson’s purpose for going to Europe? What was Wilson’s purpose for going to Europe? Do you think that President Wilson was justified in going to Europe? Do you think that President Wilson was justified in going to Europe?
Paris Peace Conference Who were the Big Four? Who were the Big Four? Why do you think that the Central Powers were excluded from the Paris Peace Conference? Why do you think that the Central Powers were excluded from the Paris Peace Conference? Do you think that France would really have taken military action if Germany had refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles? Why or why not? Do you think that France would really have taken military action if Germany had refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles? Why or why not?
Fight over the Treaty President Wilson returned to the U.S. and presented the treaty to the Senate, needing the support of both Republicans and Democrats to ratify it. Wilson had trouble getting the Republican Congress’s support. The Senators divided into three groups: Reservationists thought the League of Nations charter requiring members to use force for the League conflicted with Congress’s constitutional right to declare war. 3. Reservationists, led by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, who would only ratify a revised treaty 2. Irreconcilables, who wanted outright rejection of U.S. participation in the League of Nations 1. Democrats, who supported immediate ratification of the treaty
Opposition Wilson returns a hero. Wilson returns a hero. Senate needs to approve Versailles Treaty. Senate needs to approve Versailles Treaty. Americans afraid of League of Nations and Article 10- each member promises to respect and preserve all the other members against “external aggression”. Threatens our independence. Americans afraid of League of Nations and Article 10- each member promises to respect and preserve all the other members against “external aggression”. Threatens our independence. Senate leaders Borah and Lodge lead opposition. Lodge doesn’t trust Wilson Senate leaders Borah and Lodge lead opposition. Lodge doesn’t trust Wilson Wilson suffers stroke taking his appeal to the people. Wilson suffers stroke taking his appeal to the people. Wouldn’t work with Senator Lodge. Wouldn’t work with Senator Lodge. Harding wins the election of 1920 and America never approves the Versailles Treaty or joins the League of Nations. Harding wins the election of 1920 and America never approves the Versailles Treaty or joins the League of Nations. Henry Cabot Lodge William Borah
Wilson Tours America Wilson refused to compromise with reservationists and took his case directly to the American people, traveling 8,000 miles in 22 days. In 32 major speeches, Wilson urged the public to pressure Republican senators into ratifying the treaty, warning of serious consequences if world nations didn’t work together. Wilson’s heavy touring schedule weakened him, and after suffering a stroke in October 1919, he cut himself off from friends and allies. In September 1919, Senator Lodge presented a treaty to the U.S. Senate including a list of 14 reservations, or concerns about the Treaty of Versailles. Wilson was unwilling to compromise, and the Senate rejected Lodge’s treaty on Wilson’s instructions. After Wilson left office in 1921, the U.S. signed separate treaties with Austria, Hungary, and Germany, but never joined the League of Nations. Without U.S. participation, the League’s ability to keep world peace was uncertain.
Woodrow Wilson's Last Days (02:59)
The Fight over the Treaty Why did Congress fight over the treaty? Why did Congress fight over the treaty? How was the Senate divided by the fight over the Treaty of Versailles? How was the Senate divided by the fight over the Treaty of Versailles? Do you think the reservationists were right in refusing to ratify the Treaty of Versailles? Explain. Do you think the reservationists were right in refusing to ratify the Treaty of Versailles? Explain.
Political The war led to the overthrow of monarchies in Russia, Austria- Hungary, Germany, and Turkey. It contributed to the rise of the Bolsheviks to power in Russia in 1917. It fanned the flames of revolts against colonialism in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Economic WWI devastated European economies, giving the U.S. the economic lead. The U.S. still faced problems such as inflation, which left people struggling to afford ordinary items. Farmers, whose goods were less in demand than during the war, were hit hard. The Impact of World War I Social The war killed 14 million people and left 7 million men disabled. The war drew more than a million women into the U.S. workforce, which helped them pass the Nineteenth Amendment to get the vote. It also encouraged African Americans to move to northern cities for factory work.
Impact in Europe The effects of World War I in Europe were devastating. – – European nations lost almost an entire generation of young men. – – France, where most of the fighting took place, was in ruins. – – Great Britain was deeply in debt to the U.S. and lost its place as the world’s financial center. – – The reparations forced on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles were crippling to its economy. World War I would not be the “war to end all wars,” as some called it. – – Too many issues were left unresolved. – – Too much anger and hostility remained among nations. Within a generation, conflict would again break out in Europe, bringing the United States and the world back into war.
Impact of World War I What was the impact of World War I on the United States and the world? What was the impact of World War I on the United States and the world? What casualties resulted from World War I? What casualties resulted from World War I? How did World War I have a lasting effect on American Society? How did World War I have a lasting effect on American Society? What was the condition of the U.S. economy after the war? What was the condition of the U.S. economy after the war?