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The Peace Negotiations

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Presentation on theme: "The Peace Negotiations"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Peace Negotiations
The End of World War I The Peace Negotiations

2 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Point Plan
No secret treaties Freedom of the seas Tariffs and economic barriers should be lowered or abolished Reduction of armaments Colonial policies should consider the interests of the colonial people Boundaries based on self-determination and nationality A League of Nations

3 The “Big Four” David Lloyd George of Great Britain
Vittorio Orlando of Italy Georges Clemenceau of France Woodrow Wilson of the United States

4 Different Nations – Different Intentions
Great Britain – to limit the size of German navy; refused to back freedom of the seas France – to prevent future attacks from Germany; establish a buffer zone Italy – to gain land United States – Idealistic goals: “peace without victory”, “war to end wars”, “make the world safe for democracy”

5 The Treaty of Versailles - 1919
Germany – disarmed Germany lost its colonies in Asia & Africa Germany forced to admit guilt for the war Germany had to pay huge reparation payments ($33 billion) to Allies Germany had to accept occupation of the Rhineland by France for 15 years & return Alsace-Lorraine to France Independence to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, & Finland New Nations created: Poland, Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia Created League of Nations

6 Which of Wilson’s 14 Points were included in the Treaty of Versailles?
Which were NOT included?

7 U.S. Debate on the Treaty of Versailles

8 Support for the Treaty Woodrow Wilson Many Democrats
Majority of American people Those who believed in the League of Nations Would meet the threats to world peace Would create forum where nations could talk through their disagreements Would provide collective security

9 Opponents of the Treaty - Irreconcilables
Senator William Borah Some Republican Senators Those who could not accept membership in the League of Nations

10 Opponents of the Treaty - Reservationists
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Larger group of Senators Those who could accept the League of Nations if certain “reservations” were added to the agreement Those who believed that membership in the League Would threaten U.S. isolation Would require U.S. involvement in Europe & in wars without consent of Congress

11 Rejection of the Treaty
Senate voted twice in 1919 to reject the Treaty (with and without the reservations) Senate rejected the Treaty again in 1920 after Wilson encouraged loyal supporters of the Treaty to reject it with any reservations attached

12 Reasons for refusal to ratify the Treaty of Versailles
Wilson unwilling to compromise Wilson alienated Senate Republicans by not including them in the Paris delegation The American people assumed the Senate would ratify the Treaty & did not make their wishes known to their representatives “Article X” US feared the League of Nations would “entangle” the US in European affairs US worried that it would lose its sovereignty to the League of Nations


14 US in International Affairs after World War I
Washington Naval Disarmament Conference (1920 – 1921) Limited battleship production in ratio London Naval Disarmament Conference (1927) Limited cruisers and destroyers

15 Kellogg-Briand Pact – 1928 Between US and France (eventually 62 nations) Condemned war as a solution to international controversies

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