Presentation on theme: "The world at war 18.4 Peace Without Victory"— Presentation transcript:
1The world at war 18.4 Peace Without Victory “What we demand is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression.”- Woodrow Wilson, 1918The world at war18.4 Peace Without Victory
2Focus Your Thoughts . . .What do you think will be some of the immediate effects of the “War to End All Wars” Politically? Economically? Socially? Why was this considered a war ‘without victory’, even though the Allied Powers were victorious?
3Wilson’s Fourteen Points The destruction and massive loss of life of WWI was shocking . . .President Wilson wanted a “just and lasting peace”His plan for world peace was referred to as the Fourteen Points
4The First Five Points Open diplomacy Freedom of the seas Removal of trade barriersReduction of military armsProposed a fair system to resolved disputes over coloniesThe next eight dealt directly with ‘self-determination’The right of people to determine their own political statusExample: Wilson wanted the different ethnic groups within Austria-Hungary to be able to form their own nations
5The Fourteenth PointCalled for the establishment of the ‘League of Nations’The League would be an organization of nations that would work together to settle disputes, protect democracy, and prevent war
6The Components of the Fourteen Points Applied the principles of progressivism to foreign policyThe ideals of free trade, democracy, and self-determination are all things which the Progressives fought for . . .Most importantly, the Fourteen Points declared that the foreign policy of democratic nation should be based on morality, not just what was best for that nationReview: Who formed the Progressive Party??(Hint: He’s a BAMF)
7Paris Peace Conference President Wilson led the group of American negotiators who attended the peace conference in 1919President Wilson enjoyed a heroes welcome in Paris; he was the first U.S. President ever to visit Europe while in officePresident Wilson arrives in Paris
8The Conference Opens The Conference began on January 12, 1919 Leaders from thirty-two nations – representing about three-quarters of the world’s population – attended the conferenceThe Big Four dominated negotiationsThe leaders of the victorious Allied PowersDavid Lloyd George, British Prime MinisterGeorges Clemenceau, French PremierVittorio Orlando, Italian Prime Minister
9Conflicting Needs Deal openly Trade fairly Reduce arsenals President WilsonThe Other Allied PowersDeal openlyTrade fairlyReduce arsenalsPunish GermanyStill others came seeking independence, hoping to build new nationsYugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland
10The Treaty of Versailles The Allied Powers eventually reached a consensusThey presented their peace agreement to Germany in May of 1919The Treaty:Forced Germany to disarm its military forcesRequired Germany to pay the Allies ‘reparations’Payments for damages and expensesDemanded Germany accept sole responsibility for WWICreated nine new nationsIncluded Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and PolandIncluded some of Wilson’s Fourteen PointsThe establishment of the League of NationsRequired the Central Powers to surrender all its colonies to the Allied PowersGermany strongly protested the terms, but was threatened with French military action, and signed the Treaty on June 28, 1919
11The Fight Over the Treaty Wilson returned to the U.S. on July 8, 1919The Treaty had to be approved by the SenateThe Senate immediately divided into three groups:Democrats who supported immediate ratificationThe ‘irreconcilables’, who urged outright rejection of participation in the League of NationsThe ‘reservationists’, who would ratify the treaty only if changes were madeFocused their criticism on the part of the League of Nations which required its members to use military force to carry out its decisionsHow do you think Wilson responded to this opposition?
12Wilson’s ResponseWilson refused to compromise with the reservationists and took his case directly to the American peopleIn twenty-two days, Wilson traveled 8,000 miles and made thirty-two speeches“I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert [agree upon] the method by which to prevent it.”
13Wilson’s Health Deteriorates Wilson’s speaking schedule took a heavy toll on his health, and on September 25, 1919, he collapsedIn early October, he suffered a stroke and never fully recoveredHe finished out the rest of his term living privately in the White House, cut off from everyone except his wife and closest aidesAfter Wilson left office in 1921, the United States signed separate peace treaties Austria, Germany, and HungaryThe United States never joined the League of Nations!!!!!
14What were some other contributing factors? AssignmentAs you know, the United States never joined the League of Nations President Wilson fought so desperately for; consider Wilson’s prophetic words from our earlier slide:“I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert [agree upon] the method by which to prevent it.”The League of Nations dissolved in 1946 during WWII and was later replaced by the United Nations, which the United States did join.Was Wilson right?Did the United State’s failure to join the League of Nations lead to the second world war? Why or why not?What were some other contributing factors?