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NS 1300 Emergence of Modern Science Chapter #18 Rock Cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "NS 1300 Emergence of Modern Science Chapter #18 Rock Cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1 NS 1300 Emergence of Modern Science Chapter #18 Rock Cycle


3 Types of Rocks Igneous Intrusive Extrusive Pyroclastic Sedimentary Chemical Precipitates and Evaporites Fossiliferous Clastic Sorted Unsorted Metamorphic Foliated Unfoliated

4 Distribution of Elements in the Solar System Elements in the Sun Carbonaceous Chondrites Elements in the Earth’s Core Elements in the Earth’s Mantle Elements in the Earth’s Crust Elements in the Earth’s Hydrosphere and Atmosphere

5 Minerals in Earths’ Crust Oxygen = 46.6 % Silicon = 27.7 % Aluminum = 8.1 % Iron = 5 % Calcium = 3.6 % Potassium = 2.8 % Magnesium = 2.6 % All Others = 1.5 %

6 Mineral Identification Mineral Classes Silicates Oxides Carbonates Sulfides Sulphates Halides Phosphates Hydroxides Native Elements

7 Using Mineral Properties to Identify Minerals Luster Color and Streak Hardness Moh’s Scale of Hardness Cleavage Specific Gravity Special Properties

8 Rock Texture Random Crystalline Texture Clastic Texture Foliated Texture

9 Mineralogic Composition Igneous Minerals Sedimentary Minerals Metamorphism Recrystallization

10 Using Texture and Mineralogic Composition to Identify Rocks Igneous Rocks Intrusive Extrusive Pyroclastic Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Nonclastic Metamorphic Rocks Foliated Unfoliated

11 Igneous Rock Texture Phaneritic Coarse-Grained Medium-Grained Fine-Grained Aphanitic Glassy Vesicular Pyroclastic Porphyritic

12 Igneous Mineral Composition Felsic Granite Rhyolite Mafic Basalt Gabbro Intermediate Diorite Andesite

13 Bowen’s Reaction Series Continuous Reaction Series Discontinuous Reaction Series

14 Using Texture and Mineralogic Characteristics to Identify Igneous Rocks Phaneritic Amount of Quartz Amount and Type of Feldspar Ferromagnesian Minerals Aphanitic Texture Color Porphyritic Phenocrysts

15 Sedimentary Rocks Sediment Formation Mechanical and Chemical Weathering Sediment Transport Water, Ice, Wind and Gravity Sediment Deposition Environment of Deposition

16 Non-marine Terrigenous Lacustrine Marine Littoral Pelagic Transitional

17 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Sorting Grain Size Boulders Pebbles Sand Silt Clay Rounding

18 Classification by Grain Size Unsorted Conglomerate Breccia Sorted Quartz Sandstone Arkose Graywacke Siltstone Shale

19 BioClastic Sedimentary Rocks Micritic Limestone Pelletal Limestone Oolitic Limestone Chalk Fossiliferous Limestone Coquina

20 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Precipitates Limestone Dolomite Travertine Chert Evaporites Gypsum Halite

21 Other Compositions Siliceous Sedimentary Rocks Dolomite Coal

22 Sedimentary Structures Cross-Stratification Graded Bedding Ripple-Marks Mud Cracks

23 Metamorphic Processes Recrystallization Crystallization Rotation

24 Metamorphic Mineral Composition Pelitic Shale to Slate to Phylite to Schist to Gneiss Arenaceous Granite to Schist to Gneiss Mafic Andesite to Schist to Gneiss Calcareous Limestone to Marble

25 Conditions of Metamorphism Contact Metamorphism Regional Metamorphism

26 Classification of Metamorphic Rocks Foliated Slate Phyllite Schist Gneiss Unfoliated Marble Quartzite

27 Rock Cycle

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