2MINERALS – 26.1A. Common Elements1. Elements in Earth’s Crusta. What are the elements found in the Earth’s Crust?Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, and Magnesium.
3b. What are the elements found in the Continental Crust b. What are the elements found in the Continental Crust? Greater abundance of less dense elements such as, Silicon, Oxygen, Aluminum, and Potassium.
4c. What are the elements found in the Oceanic Crust c. What are the elements found in the Oceanic Crust? More dense materials such as, Iron, and Magnesium.
6Physical Properties of Minerals 1. Color is due to different elements found in the mineral.
7Ruby is red because it contains more of the chemical impurity chromium than a sapphire, which is blue.
8Mineral Identification 1. Color can be the least reliable property for mineral identification. The same mineral can occur naturally in a variety of colors. For example, quartz can be colorless, purple, yellow, gray, or rose-colored.
9Lustera. Please Define Luster:Property of metals and alloys that describes having a shiny appearance.
10Streaka. Please Define Streak:Color of a mineral in its powdered form.
12a. Please Define Atomic arrangement: The orderly arrangement of atoms in a mineral’s structure. This arrangement of atoms can reflect the waya mineral breaks, how hard it is, and what type of crystal shape it has.
13Cleavagea. Please Define Cleavage:Manner in which a mineral breaks along planes of weakness, creating sets of smooth parallel sides; determined by the arrangement of atoms in the mineral’s structure.
14Fracturea. Please Define Fracture:Manner in which a mineral without cleavage will break, producing uneven, irregular surfaces.
16Hardnessa. Please Define Hardness:Measure of a mineral’s resistance to scratching, described by Mohs scale hardness.
17Crystal shapea. Please Define Crystal shape:Crystal shapes are used to determine the crystal system that a mineral belongs to.
18Mineral Formation1. Minerals from hot watera. How does this happen?As hot water solution cools, its particles slow down and dissolved materials are able to crystallize out of solution.
19Minerals from molten rock a. Please Define Magma:Molten rock material inside Earth.
20Minerals from evaporation a. How does this happen?When water evaporates, dissolved mineral material can crystallize from a saturated solution.
21Mineral Groups1. Silicatesa. Please Define Silicates:The basic building block for the silicate minerals is a simple silicate ion (SiO44-), composed of four oxygen atoms tightly bonded to a silicon atom. This forms a geometric structure called a tetrahedron.
22Silicate structures a. Minerals of the crust 1.) What are some of the silicates from the Crust?a. Quartz, potassium Feldspar, from Continental Crust.b. Plagioclase feldspar from Oceanic Crust.
23Nonsilicatesa. Please Define Nonsilicates:Minerals that do not contain silicon. Examples are; carbonates, halides, oxides, sulfides, sulfates, and native elements such as iron, copper, and sulfur.
24Mineral Uses1. What are some uses of Minerals?The mineral halite (NaCl) is used to flavor and preserve food. Gold and Silver is used for currency. Hematite or Iron Ore is used to make iron and steel. Quartz or SiO2 is used to make glass and calcite or cement.
25IGNEOUS ROCKS – 26.2A. What’s a rock?1. Please Define Rock:Naturally formed mixture of minerals, rock fragments or volcanic glass, bound together, identified based on composition and texture.
26Intrusive Igneous Rocks 1. Please Define Intrusive Igneous Rocks:Rock that formed from magma that solidified within Earth’s crust, also called Plutonic rock.
27Magma compositiona. Bowen’s Reaction Series1.) What is Bowen’s Reaction Series?Simultaneous crystallization of silicate minerals with a decrease in temperature.
281.) What are the three Magma Types? (a) Mafic rocks- poor in silica and dense and comprise theOceanic Crust.(b) Felsic rocks- rich in silica and havelow densities that comprise the Continental Crust.(c) Intermediate Rocks- have both mafic and felsic.
29Intrusive rock textures a. What is Intrusive rock textures?Rocks that cooled slowly underground and have coarse-grained textures. Examples of such rocks are granite, diorite, and gabbro.
30Extrusive Igneous Rocks 1. Please Define Extrusive Igneous Rocks: Rock that formed from lava or ash that solidified on Earth’s surface. Obsidian is an example of rock thatcooled so quickly that almost no crystals are formed.Obsidian appears glassy.
31Other texturesa. What are other Textures?Pumice and scoria are examples of extrusive igneous rocks that have vesicular texture. These rocks formed as trapped gases escape from a volcano during an eruption. Another type of texture, called porphyritic texture, results when minerals cool at different rates and create a rock with two different-size crystals.
33Common Igneous Rocks1. Name three Common Intrusive Igneous Rocks:a. Graniteb. Dioritec. Gabbro
34Name three Common Extrusive Igneous Rocks: a. Rhyoliteb. Andesitec. Basalt
35Gasesa. What are some gases found in Magma?1.) Water vapor2.) Carbon dioxide
36SEDIMENTARY ROCKS – 26.3A. Clasts1. Please Define Clasts:Small rock and mineral fragments that can become part of another rock.
37Weatheringa. Please Define Weathering:Process that involves the physical of chemical breakdown of materials on Earth’s surface.
38Transportation and deposition a. Please Define Pore Space:Empty space between clasts, can contain water, oil and natural gas.
39Compaction and cementation a. Please Define Compaction:Process by which clasts stick together due tothe weight of overlying material.
40b. Please Define Cementation: Process of minerals precipitating out of solution into the spaces between clasts.
41Detrital Sedimentary Rocks 1. Please Define Detrital:Sedimentary rocks that are made mostly of clasts. Geologists classify detrital sedimentary rocks based on clast size. In order of decreasing size, clasts are classified as gravel, sand, silt, and mud or clay.
42Clast sizea. What can Clast size be used for?The size of a clast can be used to infer how the clast was transported. It takes more force to move large clasts than it takes to move small clasts.
43Compositiona. What is Composition?Detrital sedimentary rock composition depends on the type of rock material that is weathered, transported, and deposited.
44a. How are sedimentary Rocks Classified? Classificationa. How are sedimentary Rocks Classified?Geologist classify detrital sedimentary rocksbased on clast size.
45C. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks 1. How do Chemical Sedimentary Rocks form?Chemical sedimentary rocks form from water that contains dissolved solids. Rock salt and gypsum are two examples of chemical sedimentary rocks.
46Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks 1. What are Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks?If sedimentary rocks contain the remains of living organisms, they are biochemical sedimentary rocks. Limestone and coal are examples of Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks.
47Coala. What is Coal?Coal is composed almost entirely of the carbon that remains after plant material is compressed underground.
48Formation of coal1.) Where does Coal Form?Coal usually develops from peat, a brown, lightweight deposit of moss and other plant matter.
50METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE- 26.4 A. Metamorphic Rocks1. Please Define Metamorphic Rock:Igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been changed by any combination of heat, pressure, and chemical reactions.
51Regional and contact metamorphism a. Please Define Regional Metamorphism:Metamorphic changes in rocks that occur over large areas.
52Please Define Contact Metamorphism: Localized metamorphic changes that occurs in a small area, as when magma intrudes into or is in contact with the rock.
53Compositiona. Please Define Composition:The presence of water within rock enables chemical reactions to occur. Water can flow into cracks or pores in rock and cause atoms in minerals to rearrange and change composition.
54Mineral composition1.) Please Define Mineral composition:Clay minerals, mica, and amphiboles are examples of minerals that contain water in their crystal structures.
55Texturesa. Please Define Texture:Textures describes the size, shape, and arrangement of the crystals or grains in a rock.
56b. Please Define Foliated: Texture of some metamorphic rocks in which crystals are arranged in layers and bands as a result of high pressure conditions.
571.) Name some Foliated Rocks: (a.) Slate c. Foliated rocks1.) Name some Foliated Rocks:(a.) Slate(b.) Phyllite(c.) Schist(d.) Gneiss
58Nonfoliated rocksDefinition: Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks tend to have random crystal orientation and are uniform in color.1.) Name some Nonfoliated rocks(a.) Quartzite came from quartz(b.) Marble came from limestone
59Classificationa. How are Metamorphic rocks Classified?Metamorphic rocks can be classified based on texture and mineral composition.
60The Rock Cycle1. Please Define the Rock Cycle:The continual changing of rocks into different types through processes such as high temperature and pressure, weathering, erosion and sedimentation.
62Conservation of matter a. What is the Conservation of Matter as it applies to the Rock Cycle?Minerals in rocks are neither created nor destroyed but are changed over time by heat and pressure to another type of rock.
63CHAPTER 26 REVIEW p. 840.A. Check Concepts1. Please do Check Concepts , p. 840.B. Standardized Test Practice1. Please do Standardized Test Practice 1-9, p. 842.