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Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements Including the Geological History of North Carolina!

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements Including the Geological History of North Carolina!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements Including the Geological History of North Carolina!

2 Classification of Rock Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin. 1. Sedimentary Rocks Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

3 Classification of Rock Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin. 1. Sedimentary Rocks Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this. Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed

4 Classification of Rock Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin. 1. Sedimentary Rocks Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this. Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

5 Classification of Rock Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin. 1. Sedimentary Rocks Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this. Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited: A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

6 Classification of Rock Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin. 1. Sedimentary Rocks Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this. Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited: A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks The particles were lithified

7 Classification of Rock Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin. 1. Sedimentary Rocks Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this. Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited: A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by:

8 Classification of Rock Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin. 1. Sedimentary Rocks Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this. Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited: A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by: compaction – great pressure from

9 Classification of Rock Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin. 1. Sedimentary Rocks Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this. Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited: A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by: compaction – great pressure from the layers of sediment above. It can only work if the sediments are

10 Classification of Rock Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin. 1. Sedimentary Rocks Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this. Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited: A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by: compaction – great pressure from the layers of sediment above. It can only work if the sediments are small (e.g. shale & siltstone from clay and silt)

11 Cementation – is needed for larger particles.

12 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together

13 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

14 Clastics are usually stratified,

15 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils.

16 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils.

17 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils.

18 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

19 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation. B.Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was

20 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation. B.Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water.

21 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation. B.Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers.

22 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation. B.Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. alabaster

23 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation. B.Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. alabaster limestone

24 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation. B.Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. Evaporites will form if the rate of evaporation is great.

25 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation. B.Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. Evaporites will form if the rate of evaporation is great. halite

26 Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO 3 ) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles). Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation. B.Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. Evaporites will form if the rate of evaporation is great. All chemical sedimentary rocks are monomineralic.

27 C.Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes

28 C.Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal]

29 C.Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]).

30 Oolitic limestone

31 C.Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]). Oolitic limestone

32 C.Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]). Oolitic limestone

33 C.Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]). The shell material, however, is not organic.

34 2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

35 A. Igneous -

36 2. Nonsedimentary Rocks A.Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.

37 2. Nonsedimentary Rocks A.Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies. 1. Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed

38 2. Nonsedimentary Rocks A.Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies. 1.Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface.

39 2. Nonsedimentary Rocks A.Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies. 1.Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate.

40 2. Nonsedimentary Rocks A.Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies. 1.Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate. Dark colors (mafic) harden first (higher temp); while light colors (felsic) harden last.

41 2. Nonsedimentary Rocks A.Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies. 1.Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate. Dark colors (mafic) harden first (higher temp); while light colors (felsic) harden last. The longer it takes for magma to cool, the _____ the crystals will be

42 2. Nonsedimentary Rocks A.Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies. 1.Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate. Dark colors (mafic) harden first (higher temp); while light colors (felsic) harden last. The longer it takes for magma to cool, the larger the crystals will be (coarse grained).

43 Intrusive Igneous Rocks granite

44 Intrusive Igneous Rocks diorite

45 Intrusive Igneous Rocks gabbro

46 Intrusive Igneous Rocks Pegmatite

47 All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust.

48

49 All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth.

50 All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed.

51

52 All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed. If cracks lead to the surface, extrusions are formed (volcanoes).

53

54 2. Extrusive (eruptive or volcanic) rocks form from

55 2.Extrusive (eruptive or volcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface.

56 2.Extrusive (eruptive or volcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled

57 2.Extrusive (eruptive or volcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly. Lava cooling into basalt basalt

58 2.Extrusive (eruptive or volcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly. Glassy texture shows it cooled very fast (usually under water).

59 obsidian

60 2.Extrusive (eruptive or volcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly. Glassy texture shows it cooled very fast (usually under water). Sometimes the lava is ejected onto the surface and cools with gases trapped inside pockets (“vesicles”) in the rock. pumice

61 B. Metamorphic Rock – used to be

62 B.Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of

63 B.Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

64 1. Regional – occurs over wide areas,

65 B.Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes. 1.Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions.

66 B.Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes. 1.Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes. slate

67 B.Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes. 1.Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes. slate (used to be shale; the pressure made it darker & denser, the shale layers became foliated)

68

69 B.Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes. 1.Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes. quartzite

70 B.Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes. 1.Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes. quartzite (used to be sandstone; the “scaliness” is from the distorted sand grains)

71 B.Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes. 1.Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes. gneiss

72 B.Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes. 1.Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes. gneiss (used to be granite; the heat & pressure made the minerals recrystallize and form bands)

73 2.Contact (thermal) – occurs at the interface of hot magma and existing rock.

74 2.Contact (thermal) – occurs at the interface of hot magma and existing rock. Chemical changes forming new minerals often occur. Pix of meta rocks Quartzite (used to be sandstone)

75 2.Contact (thermal) – occurs at the interface of hot magma and existing rock. Chemical changes forming new minerals often occur. More pix of meta Marble bookends (used to be limestone)

76 We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition,

77 What can we infer from this rock? Pix of conglom

78 We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, Large rounded particles imply that this conglomerate formed from sediment at the mouth of a river. Pix of conglom

79 We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, structure, Foliation in this schist implies that the basalt underwent tremendous pressure deep under the surface. Pix of schist

80 We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, structure and texture. The course grains in this diorite implies that it cooled deep within the crust.

81 We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, structure and texture. The course grains in this diorite implies that it cooled deep within the crust. Pix of obsidian The glassy luster in this obsidian implies that it cooled quickly, most likely under water.

82 The Rock Cycle

83 There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

84 The Rock Cycle There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

85 The Rock Cycle There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks - similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

86 The Rock Cycle There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks - similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

87 The Rock Cycle There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks - similarities between metamorphic & other rocks - transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

88 The Rock Cycle There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks - similarities between metamorphic & other rocks - transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock - lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

89 The Rock Cycle There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks - similarities between metamorphic & other rocks - transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock - lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

90 The Rock Cycle There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks - similarities between metamorphic & other rocks - transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock - lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock - the composition of sedimentary rocks suggest that they had varied origins conglomerate

91 The Rock Cycle There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks - similarities between metamorphic & other rocks - transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock - lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock - the composition of sedimentary rocks suggest that they had varied origins - some rocks show multiple transformations

92 The Rock Cycle There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks - similarities between metamorphic & other rocks - transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock - lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock - the composition of sedimentary rocks suggest that they had varied origins - some rocks show multiple transformations - the age of rocks ≠ the age of the earth

93 Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family

94 Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family (darker & denser),

95 Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family (darker & denser), while continental igneous rocks tend to be of the granite family

96 Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family (darker & denser), while continental igneous rocks tend to be of the granite family (lighter). Pix of crustal rock (Basaltic) (Granitic)


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