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Chapter 2 Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

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1 Chapter 2 Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

2 Section 1 The Rock Cycle

3 rock always changing a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals and/or organic matter

4 rock cycle the series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed and forms again by geological processes

5 weathering the process in which water, wind, ice and heat break down rock breaks rock down into fragments (which sedimentary rock is made)

6 erosion the process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another

7 deposition the process in which sediment is moved by erosion and comes to rest in a new location sediment is deposited in bodies of water and other low-lying areas sediment may be pressed and cemented together by minerals dissolved in water to form sedimentary rock


9 uplift movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the Earth’s surface when rock is uplifted to surface weathering, erosion and deposition begin

10 magma the hot liquid that forms when rock partially or completely melts 3 ways magma can form: 1) when rock is heated 2) pressure is released 3) when rock changes composition  freezes between 700º and 1250º C

11 composition the chemical makeup of a rock
describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock limestone = 95% calcite and 5% aragonite  granite = 55% feldspar, 35% quartz and 10% biotite mica

12 texture the quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes and positions of the rock’s grains examples = fine grained, medium grained or coarse grained texture  can provide clues as to how and where the rock formed



15 igneous rock forms when hot, liquid rock (magma) cools and solidifies
are located above and below the surface

16 felsic rocks igneous rocks that are light in color and rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon and sodium examples = granite and rhyolite

17 mafic rocks igneous rocks that are dark in color and rich in calcium, iron and magnesium (poor in silicon) examples = gabbro and basalt


19 intrusive igneous rock
rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath the Earth’s surface usually have a coarse grained texture  cools very slowly and forms minerals that are large, visible crystals  common intrusive shapes = plutons, batholiths, stocks, dikes and sills

20 intrusive igneous rock

21 extrusive igneous rock
rock that forms as a result of volcanic activity at or near the Earth’s surface also called lava rocks common around volcanoes cools quickly and contain very small or no crystals

22 extrusive igneous rock


24 lava plateau when a large amount of lava flows out of fissures onto land and covers a large area pre-existing landforms are often buried by these lava flows




28 sandstone when sand grains are compacted or compressed and then cemented together one of the many types of sedimentary rock

29 sedimentary rock through erosion rock and mineral fragments are moved from one place to another and eventually deposit in layers. As new layers arrive, old layers are compacted & cemented together binding minerals and rock together form at or near the Earth’s surface  forms without heat and pressure  most noticeable feature is the layers/strata fossils can only be found in sedimentary rock


31 strata horizontal layers of rock

32 clastic sedimentary rock
forms when rock or mineral fragments (called clasts) are cemented together by minerals such as calcite or quartz classified according to the size of fragments: fine, medium and coarse grained


34 chemical sedimentary rock
forms from solutions of dissolved minerals and water when minerals crystallize out of a solution, such as sea water to become rock example = halite

35 organic sedimentary rock
forms from the remains or fossils of once living plants and animals example = many limestone made of skeletons of tiny organisms (coral) example = coal

36 stratification the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers differ from one another depending on the kind, size and color of their sediment



39 Section 4 Metamorphic Rock


41 metamorphic rock rocks in which the structure, texture or composition of the rock have changed all metamorphic rock has 1 of 2 textures: foliated or nonfoliated

42 metamorphism when rocks change shape
all three types of rock can be changed by heat, pressure or a combination of both

43 contact metamorphism when rock is heated by nearby magma
occurs near igneous intrusions

44 regional metamorphism
when pressure builds up in rock that is buried deep below other rock formations or when large pieces of the Earth’s crust collide with each other causes rock to become deformed and chemically change  occurs over thousands of cubic kilometers deep within Earth’s crust

45 regional metamorphism


47 foliated the texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands usually contain aligned grains or flat minerals such as mica or chlorite example= shale slate phyllite schist gneiss

48 foliated

49 nonfoliated the texture of metamorphic rock in which the minerals are not arranged in planes or bands commonly made of one or only a few minerals  Example= quartz sandstone quartzite or limestone marble


51 deformation a change in the shape of a rock caused by a force placed on it folds or bends in rock



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