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Elements in Earth Science Each element is made of atoms that are the same Each atom is made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

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Presentation on theme: "Elements in Earth Science Each element is made of atoms that are the same Each atom is made of protons, neutrons, and electrons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements in Earth Science Each element is made of atoms that are the same Each atom is made of protons, neutrons, and electrons

2 Most Common Elements in Earth Science OxygenO SiliconSi AluminumAl IronFe CalciumCa SodiumNa PotassiumK MagnesiumMg TitaniumTi HydrogenH

3 In general … simpler elements are more common In general … the more familiar an element, the more abundant

4 Minerals Is an element or compound found naturally in rocks and soils. There are more than 3500 named minerals. New minerals are being found every year.

5 Characteristics of Minerals All are solids Form naturally Never part of living things Definite chemical makeup Definite atomic pattern

6 Slow cooling minerals form large crystals Fast cooling minerals form small crystals

7 Rocks Made up of one or more minerals 3 types: Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic

8 Igneous Fire formed Cools and hardens from magma Magma is in the earth Lava is on the earth

9 2 types of Igneous Intrusive – cools inside Earth Cools slowly Extrusive – cools outside Earth Cools quickly

10 Intrusive Granite – most common, mountain guts Diorite – iron and magnesium Gabbro – dark, large crystals Peridotite – green, most of upper crust

11 Extrusive Basalt – common, hard, dark Andesite – began cooling in crust finished on surface large/small crystals Rhyolite – cooled slowly then fast Pumice – light, spongy look Obsidian – volcanic glass, cools fast

12 Sedimentary Layers of particles that are moved from one place to another. 3 types: Clastic, Chemical, Organic

13 Clastic Most common Made of other rocks Particles accumulate and harden Weathering is an active process

14 2 Processes cause clastics to harden Weight of upper layers squeeze out liquids Minerals dissolved in ground water act as cement

15 Conglomerate – pebble pieces, rounded Breccia – boulder pieces, sharp

16 Sandstone – sandsized quartz, variety of colors Shale – most common, mud, clay, silts

17 Chemical Limestone – 50% calcite from seashells Coquina – large pieces of shell Chalk – microscopic pieces of shell

18 Halite – hard, created by evaporation Gypsum – soft, created by evaporation Chert – hard, created by heat

19 Organic Coal – black, coarse, decayed plant life

20 Special Features of Sedimentary Rocks Layering (bedding) Fossils Geode (minerals in a hole or cavity) Concretions (minerals form around a grain or fossil)

21 Metamorphic Created by 1 of 2 processes Regional process – most common, heat and pressure over large area Contact – heat and pressure next to magma chambers 2 types: Foliated, Nonfoliated

22 Foliated layered rocks Slate – made from shale Gneiss – made from granite

23 Nonfoliated No layers Marble – made from limestone Quartzite – made from quartz


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