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Elements in Earth ScienceEach element is made of atoms that are the same Each atom is made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Most Common Elements in Earth ScienceOxygen O Silicon Si Aluminum Al Iron Fe Calcium Ca Sodium Na Potassium K Magnesium Mg Titanium Ti Hydrogen H
In general … simpler elements are more commonIn general … the more familiar an element, the more abundant
Minerals Is an element or compound found naturally in rocks and soils.There are more than 3500 named minerals. New minerals are being found every year.
Characteristics of MineralsAll are solids Form naturally Never part of living things Definite chemical makeup Definite atomic pattern
Slow cooling minerals form large crystalsFast cooling minerals form small crystals
Rocks Made up of one or more minerals3 types: Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
Igneous Fire formed Cools and hardens from magma Magma is in the earthLava is on the earth
2 types of Igneous Intrusive – cools inside Earth Cools slowlyExtrusive – cools outside Earth Cools quickly
Intrusive Granite – most common, “mountain guts”Diorite – iron and magnesium Gabbro – dark, large crystals Peridotite – green, most of upper crust
Extrusive Basalt – common, hard, darkAndesite – began cooling in crust finished on surface large/small crystals Rhyolite – cooled slowly then fast Pumice – light, spongy look Obsidian – volcanic glass, cools fast
Sedimentary Layers of particles that are moved from one place to another. 3 types: Clastic, Chemical, Organic
Clastic Most common Made of other rocksParticles accumulate and harden Weathering is an active process
2 Processes cause clastics to hardenWeight of upper layers squeeze out liquids Minerals dissolved in ground water act as cement
Conglomerate – pebble pieces, roundedBreccia – boulder pieces, sharp
Sandstone – sandsized quartz, variety of colorsShale – most common, mud, clay, silts
Chemical Limestone – 50% calcite from seashellsCoquina – large pieces of shell Chalk – microscopic pieces of shell
Halite – hard, created by evaporationGypsum – soft, created by evaporation Chert – hard, created by heat
Organic Coal – black, coarse, decayed plant life
Special Features of Sedimentary RocksLayering (bedding) Fossils Geode (minerals in a hole or cavity) Concretions (minerals form around a grain or fossil)
Metamorphic Created by 1 of 2 processesRegional process – most common, heat and pressure over large area Contact – heat and pressure next to magma chambers 2 types: Foliated, Nonfoliated
Foliated “layered” rocks Slate – made from shaleGneiss – made from granite
Nonfoliated No ‘layers’ Marble – made from limestoneQuartzite – made from quartz
Geology Part II The Rock Cycle Rocks: Geologic Profiles Geologic Time
Chapter 4 - Rocks What can be learned by studying rocks…
Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements
Three Types of Rocks K. Dawson Earth Science.
Classifying Rocks Geologists observe: Mineral composition Color
Mr. Skirbst Earth Science Topic 23
ROCK IDENTIFICATION LAB. What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?
Chapter 2 Review – ROCKS Rocks #1Rocks #2Knowledge.
Earth science Rock cycle, Igneous rocks. 6.1 The Rock Cycle Rock- a group of minerals bound together in some way Can consist of one mineral, but usually.
Rocks & The Rock Cycle.
Rocks Chapter 4 in Orange Glencoe Book
Rocks chapter 3.
Types of Rocks Test Mr. Barr.
Chapter 4 Rocks.
Igneous Rocks From lava or magma Can be either extrusive (formed on Earth’s surface, from lava) Or intrusive (formed inside of the Earth’s surface, from.
Schist Pumice Rocks pg 84 Pegmatite Gneiss Scoria coquina.
Classification based upon formation
Rocks 3.1 The Rock Cycle Rocks are any solid mass of minerals, or mineral-like matter, occurring naturally as part of our planet. Types of Rocks 1.
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