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Elements in Earth Science

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Presentation on theme: "Elements in Earth Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements in Earth Science
Each element is made of atoms that are the same Each atom is made of protons, neutrons, and electrons

2 Most Common Elements in Earth Science
Oxygen O Silicon Si Aluminum Al Iron Fe Calcium Ca Sodium Na Potassium K Magnesium Mg Titanium Ti Hydrogen H

3 In general … simpler elements are more common
In general … the more familiar an element, the more abundant

4 Minerals Is an element or compound found naturally in rocks and soils.
There are more than 3500 named minerals. New minerals are being found every year.

5 Characteristics of Minerals
All are solids Form naturally Never part of living things Definite chemical makeup Definite atomic pattern

6 Slow cooling minerals form large crystals
Fast cooling minerals form small crystals

7 Rocks Made up of one or more minerals
3 types: Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic

8 Igneous Fire formed Cools and hardens from magma Magma is in the earth
Lava is on the earth

9 2 types of Igneous Intrusive – cools inside Earth Cools slowly
Extrusive – cools outside Earth Cools quickly

10 Intrusive Granite – most common, “mountain guts”
Diorite – iron and magnesium Gabbro – dark, large crystals Peridotite – green, most of upper crust

11 Extrusive Basalt – common, hard, dark
Andesite – began cooling in crust finished on surface large/small crystals Rhyolite – cooled slowly then fast Pumice – light, spongy look Obsidian – volcanic glass, cools fast

12 Sedimentary Layers of particles that are moved from one place to another. 3 types: Clastic, Chemical, Organic

13 Clastic Most common Made of other rocks
Particles accumulate and harden Weathering is an active process

14 2 Processes cause clastics to harden
Weight of upper layers squeeze out liquids Minerals dissolved in ground water act as cement

15 Conglomerate – pebble pieces, rounded
Breccia – boulder pieces, sharp

16 Sandstone – sandsized quartz, variety of colors
Shale – most common, mud, clay, silts

17 Chemical Limestone – 50% calcite from seashells
Coquina – large pieces of shell Chalk – microscopic pieces of shell

18 Halite – hard, created by evaporation
Gypsum – soft, created by evaporation Chert – hard, created by heat

19 Organic Coal – black, coarse, decayed plant life

20 Special Features of Sedimentary Rocks
Layering (bedding) Fossils Geode (minerals in a hole or cavity) Concretions (minerals form around a grain or fossil)

21 Metamorphic Created by 1 of 2 processes
Regional process – most common, heat and pressure over large area Contact – heat and pressure next to magma chambers 2 types: Foliated, Nonfoliated

22 Foliated “layered” rocks Slate – made from shale
Gneiss – made from granite

23 Nonfoliated No ‘layers’ Marble – made from limestone
Quartzite – made from quartz

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